The Revolt of the Northern Earls
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The Revolt of the Northern Earls
- Some nobles in court conspire to overthrow Cecil.
- Leicester challenges Cecil's policies and is reprimanded by the Queen for doing so.
- Summer 1569 gold bullion is seized from Spanish ships.
- Norfolk plans to marry Mary, Queen of Scots.
- 6th September Leicester confessed the marriage plans.
- 1st Oct. he sends a message to the Earl of Westmoreland, his brother-in-law, not to rise.
- Norfolk was arrested and put in the Tower.
- 13th Oct. Sussex, in charge of the Council of the North, reported that all was quiet.
- Early November, the Neville tenantry made their way to Westmoreland's land to prepare. The gentry (who would remain loyal to the crown) went to George Bowe's castle at Barnard Castle.
- 9th November, the churchbells rang backwards at the church in Topcliffe.
- 13th November, Sussex responds by sending out troops.
- The tennantry raised in rebellion threatened to 'spoil' any land of gentry who would not join them in rebellion.
- 14th November, the earls took Durham cathedral and took mass there.
- 15th November, they marched south towards Bramham Moor.
- They raised the North Rising on their way south.
- 24th November, the rebels turned and headed back towards Knaresborough.
- 30th November, the rebels reached Brancepeth.
- 14th December, Bowes reported to Cecil that Barnard Castle was near starvation. Some men had jumped over the walls to join the rebels.
- Bowes was allowed to surrender. He marched to York with 400 men.
- 19th December there was a skirmish between the rebels and the crown's supporters just outside Newcastle.
- The rebels and their leaders flee. Some go abroad. Northumberland fled to Scotland but was handed over.
- August 1572 Northumberland was beheaded in York.
|Political||Norfolk planned to marry Mary Queen of Scots and to put her on the throne.|
|The established Northern Families had their power eroded.|
|The "council of the North" currently under the control of the queen's cousin replaced them.|
|Northumberland was restored under Mary Tudor, but under Elizabeth he found his position deprived.|
|Economic||Successive assaults on the nobility of the North, saw their lands confiscated - especially Northumberland's.|
|The crown would not accept Northumberlands right to claim profits from copper mines discovered on his estates.|
|The tenantry rose against the gentry.|
|Religious||Mary would re-Catholicise England if she were Queen. They resented the crown's appointment of the Bishop of Durham.|
|Leaders like Markenfield and Matan were influenced by Catholic ideas in the continent.|
|Northumberland confessed to rising on religious grounds, not marriage.|
|Richard Norton led rebels into Durham under the "5 wounds of Christ".|
|Other||The Earl of Westmoreland's wife pressured her husband as well as Northumberland to rise.|
|The earls felt they must act or flee once Norfolk had been arrested.|
|The countess of Northumberland was powerful - she led men out in rebellion.|
|They could rise in the north as it was not an integral part of the Tudor infrastructure.|