The Revolt of the Northern Earls

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The Revolt of the Northern Earls

  • Some nobles in court conspire to overthrow Cecil.
  • Leicester challenges Cecil's policies and is reprimanded by the Queen for doing so.
  • Summer 1569 gold bullion is seized from Spanish ships.
  • Norfolk plans to marry Mary, Queen of Scots.
  • 6th September Leicester confessed the marriage plans.
  • 1st Oct. he sends a message to the Earl of Westmoreland, his brother-in-law, not to rise.
  • Norfolk was arrested and put in the Tower.
  • 13th Oct. Sussex, in charge of the Council of the North, reported that all was quiet.
  • Early November, the Neville tenantry made their way to Westmoreland's land to prepare. The gentry (who would remain loyal to the crown) went to George Bowe's castle at Barnard Castle.
  • 9th November, the churchbells rang backwards at the church in Topcliffe.
  • 13th November, Sussex responds by sending out troops.
  • The tennantry raised in rebellion threatened to 'spoil' any land of gentry who would not join them in rebellion.
  • 14th November, the earls took Durham cathedral and took mass there.
  • 15th November, they marched south towards Bramham Moor.
  • They raised the North Rising on their way south.
  • 24th November, the rebels turned and headed back towards Knaresborough.
  • 30th November, the rebels reached Brancepeth.
  • 14th December, Bowes reported to Cecil that Barnard Castle was near starvation. Some men had jumped over the walls to join the rebels.
  • Bowes was allowed to surrender. He marched to York with 400 men.
  • 19th December there was a skirmish between the rebels and the crown's supporters just outside Newcastle.
  • The rebels and their leaders flee. Some go abroad. Northumberland fled to Scotland but was handed over.
  • August 1572 Northumberland was beheaded in York.

Political Norfolk planned to marry Mary Queen of Scots and to put her on the throne.
The established Northern Families had their power eroded.
The "council of the North" currently under the control of the queen's cousin replaced them.
Northumberland was restored under Mary Tudor, but under Elizabeth he found his position deprived.
Economic Successive assaults on the nobility of the North, saw their lands confiscated - especially Northumberland's.
The crown would not accept Northumberlands right to claim profits from copper mines discovered on his estates.
The tenantry rose against the gentry.
Religious Mary would re-Catholicise England if she were Queen. They resented the crown's appointment of the Bishop of Durham.
Leaders like Markenfield and Matan were influenced by Catholic ideas in the continent.
Northumberland confessed to rising on religious grounds, not marriage.
Richard Norton led rebels into Durham under the "5 wounds of Christ".
Other The Earl of Westmoreland's wife pressured her husband as well as Northumberland to rise.
The earls felt they must act or flee once Norfolk had been arrested.
The countess of Northumberland was powerful - she led men out in rebellion.
They could rise in the north as it was not an integral part of the Tudor infrastructure.

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