S-Cool Revision Summary

S-Cool Revision Summary

This Revision Summary applies to all the Education topics...

History

Can You?

Explain how State education in Britain originated in the desire of one class to control another.

Outline the main practices involved in such control.

Structural Theories of Schooling

Can You?

Give an outline of the Functionalist and Marxist approaches to the role Education.

Offer criticisms of these approaches.

Explain the concept 'the hidden curriculum'.

Outline Bowles and Gintis explanation of the correspondence principle.

Social Inequalities and Schooling: Class

Can You?

Identify, describe and give examples of, the various attempts to explain class differences in educational attainment.

In particular, can you explain the main findings and supposed causes of educational failure.

Social Inequalities and Schooling: Ethnicity

Can You?

Give an account of the varying explanations of ethnic differences in educational attainment.

Demonstrate an understanding of the development of differing policy approaches towards ethnic minority pupils.

Social Inequalities and Schooling: Gender

Current Issues

Can You?

Describe the main principles of market driven education.

Outline how these principles have been introduced into State education.

Key terms:

Cultural deprivation The belief that the culture of some groups within a population is debased.
 
Differentiated curriculum A curriculum that provides different types and level of course for different groups of learners.
 
Moral education Education designed to promote certain beliefs and behaviours as superior and others as inferior.
 
Individualistic competition Individuals are encouraged to compete against each other for academic status.
 
Consensus Theory A theory that proposes that societies are held together by agreement over basic values and beliefs.
 
Conflict Theory A theory that proposes that societies are best characterized by conflict between different groups within a society.
 
Correspondence Theory The idea that the social relations of the school are mirrored in the social relations of the workplace.
 
Cultural capital A store of the sort of culture that enables educational and social advancement.
 
Habitus A term that describes the cultural capital of the middle classes.
 
Selective tradition The idea that what counts as worthwhile knowledge is but a selection from the knowledge available.
 
Meritocracy I.Q. + effort.
 
Political arithmetic A reference to the quantitative research tradition in studies of education and social mobility.
 
Nature/nurture debate Explanations based in heredity or environment.
 
I.Q. Intelligence quotient (a measure of intelligence).
 
Sub-culture The culture of a distinct group within a societal culture.
 
Tripartite system The division of secondary education into 3 types under the 1944 Education Act.
 
Comprehensive An inclusive educational system. All pupils are taught within the same institution.
 
Butler Act The 1944 Education Act.
 
11+ The examination used to determine what type of secondary education a pupil should receive.
 
Self-fulfilling prophecy A belief that becomes true because it is believed to be true.
 
Material deprivation Deprivation caused by a lack of financial resources.
 
Restricted and elaborate codes Bernstein's description of two distinct speech codes.
 
Resistance A group refusal to accept dominant definitions of reality.
 
Racialised Stereotypical views of an ethnic group's characteristics that serves to identify them.
 
Assimilation The idea that immigrants could become like the host population.
 
Multi-culturalism Acceptance and celebration of cultural difference.
 
Antiracist Direct confrontation of racist belief/practice.
 
Colour racism Viewing ethnic diversity only in terms of black and white.
 
Newsom Report (1963) Marriage still seen as the vocation of girls.
 
Sexual division of labour Traditionally the division of tasks into masculine and feminine.
 
GIST A government initiative; girls into science and technology.
 
Kentucky fried education Bland homogenized education, the same everywhere.
 
Parental choice Parents can decide to which school they send their children.
 
Baker (1988 Act) The act that brought in the national curriculum.
 
National Curriculum Established core curriculum subjects, laid out curriculum guidelines, introduced standard attainment tests at key stages.
 
Opt out Schools were allowed to opt out of Local Education authority control and become grant maintained via central government funding.
 
City Technology Colleges Established by the 1988 Education Act to act as centers of excellence for vocational teaching.
 
Catchment area The geographical area around a school from where it draws the majority of its students.
 
Parentocracy A situation where parents choose schools.
 
Credentialism The pursuit of educational certificates.
 
League tables The rank ordering of schools by exam results.

Key names:

Parsons The idea that schools perform particular functions for society. Primarily socialization and selection'.
 
Durkheim The division of labour (specialization).
 
Bowles and Gintis 'Schooling in Capitalist America' (1976).
 
Davis and Moore 'Some principles of Stratification (1948).
 
P. Saunders 'Social Class and Stratification' (A British Bell curve? - 1996).
 
Althusser Ideological State Apparatus.
 
R. Williams The selective tradition.
 
Bourdieu Cultural Capital, Habitus.
 
Binet The creator of the I.Q. test.
 
Eysenck and Jensen 1960's proposed idea of ethnic differences in I.Q.
 
Murray and Herrnstein 1990's idea that intelligence is genetic.
 
Douglas 'The Home and the School' (1964).
 
Bernstein Language codes; elaborate and restricted.
 
Lynch and O'Neil Poverty causes poor school performance.
 
Aggleton Middle class resistance to schooling. 'Rebels without a Cause?' (1987).
 
D. Hargreaves 'Social Relations in a Secondary School' (1967).
 
Lacey 'Hightown Grammar' (1970).
 
Ball 'Beachside Comprehensive' (1981).
 
P. Willis 'Learning to Labour' (1976).
 
Wright (1988 and 1992) Racialisation, conflict in schools.
 
Gilborn (1990) Penalisation of black students via teacher stereotypes.
 
Eggleston (1986) Black students placed in streams below their ability.
 
Mac an Ghaill (1988) Resistance by black students to educational institutions, but not to education itself.
 
Sewell (1997) Students positive about educations but rejected the schooling process.
 
Fuller (1983) Females able to cope with schooling but found it racist.
 
Foster (1996) Defends teachers argues they are not racist, but discriminate against bad behaviour.
 
Cole (1992) Racist stereotyping in textbooks.
 
Flew (1986) Inequality of educational outcome is a result of differences in culture.
 
Scrutiny (1986) Minorities should confine their cultural forms to their leisure time if it impedes their schooling.
 
Bernstein and Murray 'The Bell Curve' (1994).
 
Pearce (1986) Multiculturalism 'undermines' the British way of life.
 
Hill gate group Right wing group interested in influencing the content of the school curriculum.
 
Gilroy (1990) and Manhood (1989) Colour racism.
 
Scrutiny (1989) Suggests sexual division of labor has a biological basis.
 
Shaw (1977) Prospect of marriage works against career planning.
 
Sharpe (1976) Girl's ambitions are depressed.
 
Connell (1986) The impact of feminism has raised girls' career ambitions.
 
Riddell (1992) Girls link school subject choice to local labour market but also accept the prospect of domestic responsibilities.
 
Bisseret (1979) Importance of historical forces acting on girls.
 
Arnot (1991) Girls and boys tend to choose subjects that are traditionally associated with their sex.
 
Barber (1994) Boys have developed less positive attitudes to education.
 
Hargreaves (1989) Kentucky Fried Education.
 
Black Report (1987) Made recommendations taken up by the 1988 Education Reform Act.
 
Education Reform Act (1988) Introduction of National Curriculum, opting Out, City Technology Colleges.
 
OFSTED Produced by the 1992 Act. Concerned with standards and efficiency in schools.
 
David (1993) Coined the term 'parentocracy'.