S-Cool Revision Summary

S-Cool Revision Summary

This Revision Summary applies to all of the Poverty, Wealth and Welfare topics...

Can You?

Outline and explain competing definitions of poverty.

Explain who are 'the poor'.

Explain conflicting approaches that explain why the poor are poor.

Be able to illustrate all of the above by reference to both historical and contemporary research.

Can You?

Describe and outline the main features of competing philosophies of welfare state and social policy.

Absolute poverty Having only what is required for physical health.
 
Relative poverty Measured in terms of judgments by members of a particular society of what is considered a reasonable and acceptable standard of living.
 
Consumption property Property that we have for personal use-clothes, cars, family homes.
 
Productive property Makes money, it is capital and includes factories, farms, stocks and shares.
 
Income The flow of money. Based on market reward for skills. The ownership of intellectual capital or skills.
 
Wealth The store of capital. Obtained via inheritance or accumulation via high salaries.
 
Social Democracy A society with the strong supporting the weak through state intervention via taxation.
 
New Right The belief that the state should not be used to bring about any social objectives.
 
Welfare pluralism The provision of welfare from various sources, not just the state.
 
Lumpenproletariat Marx and Engels in the Communist Manifesto 1848, referred to the Lumpenproletariat as 'the dangerous class'.
 
1988 Social Security Act Withdrew benefit from most people under 18, reintroduced idea that poverty was the result of idleness.
Booth, Life and Labour in East London.  
 
Rowntree's early studies of York, 1899, 1936, 1950.  
 
Townsend and Abel Smith (1965) The Poor and the Poorest. Poverty caused by low income.
 
Townsend Poverty in the United Kingdom (1979). Poverty resulted in a deprived lifestyle.
 
Piachaud (1981) Has sympathy with Townsend's view of poverty but criticises his deprivation index as rather arbitrary in its choice of indicators of poverty.
 
Mack and Lansley (1985) 'Breadline Britain'. Public perception poverty line.
 
Westergaard and Ressler (1975) Argue that class inequalities generated by the capitalist system are the fundamental reason for the persistence of poverty.
 
Peter Townsend et al (1987) The feminisation of poverty.
 
The Acheson Report  
 
Oscar Lewis The Culture of Poverty Thesis, 1965.
 
Wilson (1987) A structural account of poverty.
 
Field (1989) Has argued that Britain has an underclass of poor people whose structural location is markedly different from others on low income.
 
Rutter and Madge (1976) Over half of all forms of disadvantage arise anew each generation.
 
Bradshaw and Holmes (1989) "The poor are just the same people as the rest of our population, with the same culture and aspirations but with simply too little money to be able to share in the activities and possessions of everyday life with the rest of the population."