S-Cool Revision Summary

S-Cool Revision Summary

Adaptation Changes made in the structure or function of an organism to suit its environment.
Carnivore Meat-eating animal.
Community Groups of different species living in the same area.
Competition Two or more species which require the same food or space to live in but do not eat each other.
Decomposer Fungi or soil bacteria that break down dead plant or animal material.
De-nitrifying bacteria Bacteria that convert nitrates back into atmospheric nitrogen gas. Not useful.
Efficiency A measure in percentages of how much energy is passed on from one trophic level to another.
Energy transfer When one organism is eaten by another some of the energy stored in its cells are passed on and used.
Food chain Connection between organisms based on who eats whom.
Food web A more complex system of connections based on predation, but links a number of food chains.
Haber process Industrial chemical process which takes nitrogen and hydrogen gases and produces ammonia.
Herbivore Plant-eating animal
Legume A plant that has root nodules containing nitrogen-fixing bacteria. e.g. clover.
Migration The movement, often seasonal, of animals or birds from one place to another.
Niche The site or 'function' occupied by an individual organism in the environment.
Nitrates Ion containing one nitrogen atom and three oxygen atoms. Used by plants and converted into many complex molecules.
Nitrifying bacteria Convert ammonia and ammonium compounds into useful nitrates.
Nitrogen-fixing bacteria Convert atmospheric nitrogen gas into useful nitrates. Many live in root nodules of Legume plants.
Omnivore Animal that eats plants and other animals.
Photosynthesis Process that produces glucose by combining carbon dioxide and water through the energy derived from the Sun.
Population The total number of individuals of one species living in a particular location.
Predator Animal that seeks out another animal for food.
Prey Animal that is killed and eaten by a predator.
Primary consumer A herbivore. An animal that eats a producer - a plant.
Producer Plants. They produce the first glucose and other molecules by photosynthesis.
Putrefying bacteria Decompose proteins and urea from animal and plant material into ammonia and ammonium compounds. Smelly!
Pyramid of biomass Diagram that shows the total mass of all the organisms at each stage or level of a food chain or food web.
Pyramid of numbers Diagram that shows the total numbers of organisms at each stage or level of a food chain or food web.
Secondary consumer Animal that eats the primary consumer.
Tertiary consumer Animal that eats the secondary consumer.
Top carnivore The carnivore that eats other animals but is not itself eaten by a higher predator.
Trophic level A stage in a food chain or food web.