S-Cool Revision Summary

S-Cool Revision Summary

Study: Carried out by: Criticised by:
Chimpanzees have a theory of mind as they can deceive their keepers. Woodruff & Premack. Heyes.
Chimpanzees can solve problems at the first attempt. Köhler. Epstein.
Chimpanzees can recognise themselves in a mirror. Gallup. Bard.
Adaptation Characteristic of an organism that has survival value or increases reproductive potential.
 
Behaviourism Approach to psychology focusing on the study of observable behaviour.
 
Contagion Triggering of a pre-existing behaviour pattern in one animal by another.
 
Evolutionarily stable strategy A strategy that cannot be bettered if it is used by most members of the population.
 
Group selection Term used by Wynee-Edwards to explain the evolutaion of behaviour for the good of the group.
 
Imitation Learning of a novel behaviour through the observation of the modelling of that behaviour in another animal.
 
Inclusive fitness The measure of the abiltiy of an individual to pass genes on to the next generation.
 
Insight learning The ability to solve a problem or perform an appropriate behaviour at the first attempt.
 
Kin selection Term used by Hamilton to explain the evolution of behaviour for the good of genetic relatives.
 
Mimicry The copying of an unrewarding behaviour observed in another animal.
 
Natural selection Term used by Darwin to explain the mechanism by which organisms are selected by environmental factors for survival and reproduction.
 
Operant The behaviour performed by an animal in operant conditioning which results in a consequence.
 
Palaeontology The study of past geological periods and fossils.
 
Population A group of organisms of the same species living in the same habitat.
 
Punishment Weakens behaviours in operant conditioning.
 
Reciprocal altruism Stable strategy of 'tit-for-tat' cooperation involving related or unrelated individuals.
 
Reinforcement Strengthens behaviours in operant conditioning.
 
Schedules of reinforcement Patterns of reinforcement used in operant conditioning involving different frequencies and timings of reinforcing events.
 
Self-recognition The ability to recognise oneself in a reflection.
 
Sexual selection Selection for traits that increase mating success.
 
Shaping Learning of a new behaviour by the reinforcement of successive approximations to the desired behaviour.
 
Social facilitation The ability to perform a task better in the presence of conspecifics.
 
Stimulus enhancement Increased attractiveness of an object following conspecific's interest in that object.
 
Theory of mind The ability to attribute mental states to the self and others.
 
Tutoring The investment of time and energy into the teaching of a behaviour to a conspecific.