S-Cool Revision Summary

S-Cool Revision Summary

  • Somerset made agreements with, and probably bribed, councillors in to making him Protector of the realm. 1547 - 1549.

  • Somerset's main concern was foreign policy - all other policies followed from this. He put the crown into more debt during his protectorship.

  • Historians who like Somerset: M.L. Bush, A. Pollard, ST Bindoff (to an extent).

  • Historians who don't like Somerset: Dale Hoak, RW Heinz, Nigel Heard.

  • 1549 saw many riots and two rebellions - The Western Rebellion, Ket's Rebellion.

  • The Western Rising was mainly directed against the new Book of Common Prayer, but there were other grievances.

  • Ket's Rebellion was a riot against the local landowners that was turned into a rebellion under the leadership of Robert Ket.

  • Northumberland quashed Ket's Rebellion - this gave him control of the army - which was instrumental in causing the downfall of Somerset.

  • Northumberland was Edward's principal councillor from 1549 - 1553.

  • This period's main characteristics are: peace with France, stabilisation of the economy, tighter control over the localities.

  • He fell in 1553, after backing his daughter-in-law's (Jane Grey) claim to the throne. (Traditionally seen as an ambitious plot by himself. Loades would disagree).

  • Mary was well received in London as the new Queen.

  • Her first priority was to secure a marriage. There were 3 contenders: Reginald Pole, Edward Courtenay, Prince Philip of Spain. She chose Philip.

  • The councillors were afraid for their own positions and made Philip sign a Marriage Treaty.

  • Fears of a Spanish invasion, and fears about the marriage in general, amongst other concerns sparked a rebellion early in 1554 - Wyatt's Rebellion. It involved the county of Kent. The rebels reached London. It was a major fright for the Queen and council.

  • Mary and Pole had a policy to re-catholicise England. They thought that it would be an easy job. They repealed the religious legislation of Edward's reign in 1553, and the Acts of Henry's reign in 1554. A new Treasons Act made it easy to prosecute 'heretics'.

  • Mary's rule saw 300 'heretics' burned at the stake, mostly on charges of possessing seditious literature. Most of the accused were from the SouthEast, especially Kent and Essex.

  • There is a historical debate surrounding the effectiveness of the counter-reformation.

  • Mary's foreign policy resulted in the loss of Calais. A major blow for England.

Reading

Tittler R., The Reign of Mary I

Loades D., The Reign of Mary Tudor

Loach J., A Mid-Tudor Crisis?

Heard N., Edward VI and Mary

Guy J., Tudor England

Elton G., England Under the Tudors

Cornwall JJ, Revolt of the Peasantry