# S-Cool Revision Summary

## S-Cool Revision Summary

#### Population statistics

Below are a few statistics you should learn:

1. The population of the world is growing by 2.7 people per second.

2. 95% of this growth is in the less developed world.

3. Today approximately one in three people are under fifteen. This has huge implications for future population growth.

#### Population distribution

Population distribution - The way in which a population is spread over an area. This usually requires a description.

Population density - The number of people per specified area, for example, population per kilometre squared. This will be a figure, for example, 78 people/km2 .

It is very common for the examiners to question you on your knowledge of population distribution at a global or national scale.

#### Global distribution

On a global scale you will have to describe the global distribution of the population but will most likely be given a map to help. Try practising using a population map from your atlas.

Perhaps more significantly you will have to be able to explain why the population is distributed the way it is. For example, why are there large populations at X and a low population at Y?

A checklist of factors is given below. Make sure for each that you can explain the factor and an example to go with it:

• Physical factors - Relief, Water, Climate, Vegetation, Soil, Disease.

• Human factors - Political, Economic, Resources.

Remember: Any population distribution is likely to result from a combination of factors.

#### National Distribution

You will also need to be able to describe the distribution of population on a national scale. Make sure that you can draw a sketch map of population distribution, annotate and describe it with reference to places. You will also have to explain reasons for distribution.

#### Population change

Birth rate - This is the number of births per thousand people per year.

Death rate - The number of deaths per thousand people per year.

Natural change - This is difference between birth rate and death rate. It tells you by how many the population will be growing per thousand of population per year.

The Demographic Transition Model - Shows how a development will affect birth rate and death rate and, therefore, population.

Stage 1 of development BR (birth rates) and DR (death rates) are high so there is a low population.

Stage 2,DR has fallen but BR remains high. Natural increase is high.

Stage 3, BR also falls. Natural increase is high but falling.

Stage 4, DR and BR level out and population stabilises.

Stage 5, BR drops below DR so population is falling.

#### Migration

Migration could be described as a movement. It can involve a permanent or temporary movement and can be voluntary or as in the case of refugees forced. You need to know five things:

1. Why do people choose to migrate?

2. What are the affects on the area they migrate to?

3. What are the affects on the area they leave?

4. What are the consequences for the migrant?

5. Case studies.

What are the consequences of migration?

You need to be able to talk about the consequences of migration on the areas the migrant leave, the area they arrive in and on the migrants themselves.

Try and list Economic, Socio-cultural and political consequences.

Two case studies:

• Transmigration in Indonesia.

• Rural to urban in India.

#### Population characteristics

Population pyramids - A way of displaying the age/sex structure of a population. We can analyse it to predict the future and plan accordingly.

Dependency ratios - A ratio that compares the percentage of population available for work (15 - 64) and those economically inactive.

Population structures - this is the age/ sex balance that exists.

#### Optimum, over and under population

Optimum population - The population is such that it can maximise the benefits from the resources available. It is only when we have optimum population that the quality of life is maximised.

Over population - The resources cannot sustain the current population. As long as there is over population the quality of life will decline through unemployment, pollution, degradation of the environment.

Under population - The population cannot fully utilise the resources available. Quality of life can only slowly be improved. An increase in population would lead to an increase in quality of life.

#### Population policies

A population policy is a deliberate attempt by a Government to influence the population of a country. A government could try to encourage or discourage population growth.

#### Case studies

1. China's one child policy - reducing the population.

2. France's attempt to boost population.

#### Population models

Malthus says population is controlled by food supply.

Boserup on the other hand said that food supply would increase to accommodate population growth.

You need to be able to explain each with arguments for and against.