S-Cool Revision Summary

S-Cool Revision Summary

Regolith Weathering of parent material to give a layer of loose broken rock.
Parent material The supply of minerals comes from underlying rock, which have different rates of weathering. It controls depth, texture, drainage, and quality of the soil.
Topography The relief of land.
Biota Organisms - Plants and bacteria, fungi, and animals all interact in the nutrient cycle.
Peds Individual soil particles.
Soil texture How fine or course the mineral matter is in the soil.
Soil nutrients (bases) Chemical elements in the soil that come from rainwater, fertilizer, parent rock, decaying organic matter and clay.
Soil moisture Level of moisture in the soil - important because it influences upward and downward movement of nutrients and water in the soil.
Translocation Includes numerous processes but is primarily the downward movement of water or materials in soil.
Leaching Where soluble material is removed in solution.
Cheluviation When iron and aluminum sesquioxides are removed due to chelating agents.
Illuviation Material re-deposited in the lower horizons.
Zonal soils Are classified on a global scale and have climate as the major determining factor. They are mature, have distinct profiles and clear horizons.
Azonal soils More recent than zonal soils, and soil forming processes have not been in operation for long. Horizons are unclear and they are not linked with climate and vegetation.
Intrazonal soils Soils found within the climate belt.
Calcomorphic/calcareous soils Develop on limestone.
Hydromorphic soils Water content is always high.
Halomorphic soils Saline due to high salt level.
Podsol Develops if precipitation exceeds evapotranspiration.
Podsolisation Intensive leaching.
Brown earths Moderately or well-drained soils, found where precipitation exceeds potential evapotranspiration, and particles move downward through the soil.
Lessivage Removal of fine clay particles from soil.
Salinisation Soluble salts moved upwards through the soil as a result of capillary action.