S-Cool Revision Summary

S-Cool Revision Summary

Carbon atoms bond covalently by sharing electrons.

In general, organic compounds divide into aromatic compounds, which contain benzene rings, and aliphatic compounds, which do not. Hydrocarbons may be classified as alkanes, alkenes or arenes.

Each of these groups produces a homologous series, of compounds with increasing numbers of atoms.

There are many examples of different organic compounds with the same molecular formula in which the atoms are joined together in different arrangements. Such compounds are called isomers.

Chemists use a variety of types of formulae to represent organic molecules and help distinguish between isomers. Such formulae include structural and displayed formulae. Structural isomers have the same molecular formula but have different structural formulae.

Many hydrocarbons exist as structural isomers. Geometric or cis-trans isomers have the same molecular but have different displayed formulae. Alkenes may exist as geometric isomers.

Organic reagents can be classified as either:

nucleophiles- attack centres of low electron density.

electrophiles- attack centres of high electron density.

The properties of an organic molecule are predominantly determined by the properties of the functional group in that compound. Functional groups are atoms or combinations of atoms such as -OH, -COOH.