Other types of winds

Other types of winds

The two winds that exist in mountain and valley locations are uphill, anabatic winds and downhill, katabatic winds. An uphill wind develops under sunny morning conditions when slopes receive sunlight, become warm and then heat the atmosphere above them.

Air above these slopes expands and rises on heating. A pressure gradient results, accompanied by a strong uphill wind.

Downhill winds form, as heat is lost from a valley during the evening. Colder, denser air from higher areas drains into the valley.

Other types of winds
Other types of winds

These are created on a daily basis, as a result in the differences in heating and cooling of the land and sea. During the day, onshore winds are created, as land temperatures are higher than sea temperatures. Low pressure is formed over the land, air rises and cools.

It then drifts out over the sea, increases in density and starts to sink. High pressure exists over the sea and the sea breeze is caused by air flowing from high to low pressure (sea to land).

The situation is reversed at night, leading to high pressure over the land and off shore breezes. Pressure is lower over the sea as it is warmer than the land, and air above it rises.

Other types of winds
Other types of winds

Air that flows over a mountain range, usually the Alps leading to a strong, warm, dry wind. It is created as a depression moves over a mountain range, drawing in warm, moist air. It can lead to rapid melting of snow and ice, causing flooding and avalanches.

The American name for the Fohn, which affects the Prairies, rapidly melting snow in the spring.

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