Migration case studies

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Migration case studies

Title: Transmigration in Indonesia.

Source: Over populated islands of Indonesia, for example, Java.

Destination: Under populated outer Islands such as Maluku.

Reasons:

  • Government incentives to ease population pressures on Islands such as Java.
  • Possibility of spreading development to more remote Islands.

Indonesia

Consequences for area they arrive in:

In total over three million people have moved so this obviously puts great pressures on the areas they arrive in. Thousand of acres of rainforest have been cleared and this has led to soil erosion. Consequently, a large quantity of the land soon becomes unsuitable for farming. This is made worse by the shortage of tool and destruction of crops by wild animals. The remoteness of Islands makes commercial farming very difficult.

There has been friction with the migrants and the indigenous population. Trans-migrants receive two hectares of land as an incentive to move. Indigenous people see this as government favouritism. The tension is accentuated as sometimes migrants are given areas of land that locals used for shifting cultivation.

In some of the least populated Island migrants threaten to completely out number locals.

Consequences for area they leave:

The population on main Islands like Java is continuing to grow rapidly and the trans-migration scheme is providing minimal relief. Also many trans-migrants are returning after having little success on the outer Islands. Transmigration has done little to remove the problems of over-population.

Consequences for the migrant:

Many migrants failed to make a living in the outer Islands finding life more difficult than that in Java. Indeed, average earnings were higher in rural Java than any re-settlement Island.

Title: Rural to Urban migration. (see also the diagram of rural to urban migration).

Source: Rural areas and small town's among Calcutta.

Destination: Calcutta's Bustees (Shanty Towns).

Reasons:

  • Large population growth in rural areas puts more pressure on the environment.
  • Wages in Calcutta are approximately six times that of rural areas.
  • Sub-division of land passed on makes a subsistence life more difficult and reduces the assets against which a rural inhabitant could get a loan.
  • Increased mechanisation of agriculture to feed growing population means greater rural unemployment.
  • A large number of migrants are a consequence of natural disasters such as those faced annually in the Monsoon season. Many cross from nearby Bangladesh.
  • Indian cities receive approximately six times the investment of their rural counterparts.
  • Better medical and health care. Infant mortality is lower in Indian cities than rural areas.

India

Consequences for area they arrive in:

These are massive and one of the biggest problems facing the entire developing world. In Calcutta they include:

  1. A chance to escape the rigid caste system that is still very strong in rural areas.
  2. Higher rates of infant mortality than towns.
  3. Half a million people sleeping on the streets.
  4. Increased air pollution as the pressures of population create a need for more industry. In addition, people use wood and charcoal for cooking.
  5. The old water system cannot cope. Leaking pipes allow contamination to enter the water supply. In Monsoon season, this is particularly bad as sewage infects the water.
  6. Increased traffic causes greater air pollution problems. As many as 60% of the population suffer from breathing problems.
  7. Bustees have to occupy the least desirable land. This is often prone to flooding particularly during monsoon season but also is likely to be located near industry increasing problems with air pollution but also experiencing toxic chemical discharge.
  8. Alternatively the developments could be on steep slopes increasing the chances of landslides.

Consequences for area they leave:

  1. If the migrant finds work in the city then it is likely that the village he left will benefit from money sent home. This is what every migrant dreams of but the situation in reality is usually very different.
  2. As the pressures of urbanisation increase so government expenditure on urban areas must increase this leaves the rural areas facing an ever more difficult situation. Lack of investment on health and welfare will have obvious effects for those left behind.
  3. It is the young motivated male that is most likely to leave. This has implications for those left behind. There will be a predominantly elderly population that will find it ever more difficult to support themselves.
  4. Whilst migration may ease some of the population pressures the high birth rates in rural areas means the situation is deteriorating. This means a constant loss through migration with the break up of families.

Consequences for the migrant:

  1. Forced to live in squalid conditions in the bustees.
  2. Often the only work available would be in the informal sector. Jobs here can include rummaging amongst rubbish tips to find materials that can be sold for re-cycling.
  3. Often feel forced to stay in the cities not wanting to face the failure of going home.

Consequences

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