Skill and Health Related Fitness
Skill and Health Related Fitness
There is a close relationship between health and fitness, but sports related fitness is much higher and more specific and can be divided into different components.
Speed is the ability to move the body and limbs quickly. This ability is an important part of most sports.
Stamina can be defined as the ability to keep going for long periods of time.
Stamina can be divided into two areas:
Cardiovascular endurance or stamina depends on the ability of the heart and lungs to deliver oxygen to where it is needed.
Together the heart and lungs are known as the cardiorespiratory system.
The ability of these two systems to keep going for long periods of time understress is known as cardiorespiratory endurance.
This determines a person's aerobic capacity to sustain activities for prolonged periods of time.
Examples of such activities are swimming, long distance running and rowing.
Muscular Stamina and Endurance:
This is the ability of the muscles to contract over long periods of time.
Both cardiovascular stamina and muscular stamina are interrelated, as the muscles need a good, constant supply of oxygen in order to produce the energy for contraction.
Strength is the ability to exert a force on an object as the muscles contract.
There are three different types of strength:
Dynamic strength is required to start and maintain a movement.
Explosive strength is required to move the body or an object quickly.
It is also known as power, which is a combination of speed and strength.
Due to the short duration of muscle contraction and the high energy output the anaerobic energy systems are used.
This is the strength applied by muscles to a fixed object.
Activities such as the tug-of-war are good examples of where static strengthis applied.
Flexibility is the range of movement of a limb around its joint.
It may also be referred to as mobility or suppleness.
Good flexibility is important to sports people because it helps reduce the chance of injury and allows a full range of movement.
Swimming butterfly stroke is an example of where shoulder joint flexibility plays an important part in the execution of the skill.
There are five aspects of skill-related fitness that may be applied to everyday life but are generally more sport specific.
Agility is the ability to change direction quickly and accurately.
There are a number of examples of where agility is applied in sport: dodging an opponent's tackle; goalkeeping and moving to return the ball in squash.
There are two types of balance:
Static balance is the ability to hold the body in a position of stillness.
Performing a headstand or standing on one leg are examples of static balances.
Dynamic balance is the ability to maintain a balanced position while moving.
Riding a bicycle, walking on a tight rope, skateboarding and surfing areall examples of where static balances are applied.
To perform many of the body action sequences in sport co-ordination of limbs and body in important.
Reactions are measured in time taken to start the movement, that is, reaction time, and it is the time taken from receiving information to acting on it.
There are two types of reaction time. They are simple reaction time and choice reaction time.
Simple reaction time is the time taken from the stimulus such as the starting pistol starting a race to pushing off the blocks. The athlete does not have any choices to make.
Choice reaction time occurs when the performer has a number of options that can be made in response to the stimulus.
For example, during a volleyball match the defending side a to decide whether to set the block in the middle of the net or on the outside of the net. The time it takes to make the decision is the choice reaction time.
This is the ability to perform the skill at the exact moment it is needed.