S-Cool Revision Summary

S-Cool Revision Summary

  • A wave is formed by the wind blowing across the surface of the water, creating ripples, which then grow into waves.
  • The Fetch determines how powerful a wave may be. It is the distance that the wave has travelled.
  • Destructive waves have a much stronger backwash than swash, allowing them to remove material from the beach.
  • Destructive waves create a steep narrow beach.
  • Constructive waves have a stronger swash than backwash, causing the beach to be built up by the deposited material.
  • Constructive waves create a wide, gently sloping beach.
  • Processes of coastal erosion include attrition, corrasion, corrosion, hydraulic action, wave pounding and sub-aerial processes.
  • There are a number of factors which affect the rate of this erosion: rock type, jointing, coastal rock arrangement and rock angle.
  • Processes of coastal transportation include long-shore drift, traction, saltation, suspension, and solution.
  • Coastal deposition occurs when the waves loose energy.
  • Erosional features include headlands, bays, cliffs, wave-cut platforms, stacks, stumps, arches and caves.
  • Depositional features include beaches, spits, bars and tombolos.
  • Caused by water freezing during the Ice-Age.
  • Features of sea level change include raised beaches, rias and fjords.
  • Many strategies have been tried around the world, and these can be divided into two main groups, hard and soft engineering.
  • Hard engineering techniques include sea walls, wooden groynes, gabion groynes and rock armour.
  • Soft engineering techniques include beach replenishment.
  • The final method of coastal management is of course to do nothing and allow the sea attack the coastline naturally.
  • Most of the solutions are very costly, and in many places questions are being asked as to whether they are actually worth the money.