S-Cool Revision Summary

S-Cool Revision Summary

  • The most common indicator of development is to look at the wealth of a country, and compare it to others, using the Gross National Product.
  • Using GNP an alternative map of the world can be created, showing the developed (North) and developing (South) countries.
  • Many different indicators can be used to assess the development of a country. Some include infant mortality rate, literacy rate, life expectancy and daily calorie intake.
  • The Human Development Index was devised by the United Nations in 1990 and uses a number of indicators of development to give each country in the world a development score.
  • Water is essential for life and yet nearly one third of the population of the world do not have access to safe drinking water.
  • Aid agencies have establishing safe water resources as one of their primary targets when they give aid to a country.
  • Food shortages are also common throughout the developing world.
  • Disease such as bilharzia, cholera and malaria threaten huge numbers of people in the developing world.
  • Natural hazards such as earthquakes and volcanoes have a devastating effect on developing countries. A weak earthquake in a developing country can cause far more damage and destruction than a more powerful one in a developed country.
  • Floods and drought also commonly affect countries of the developing world.
  • The Independent Commission on International Development Issues published a report called "North-South: a programme for survival" which outlined how developed and developing world countries must work together to face the problems that faced the world.
  • Twenty years on and some of the proposals have been implemented successfully, some partially and some seem rather dated.
  • Interdependence means that LEDC's and MEDC's actually rely on each other, and without one the other would not be able to survive.
  • There is a balance of trade between the countries of the developed North and the developing South. However not everyone agrees that it is particularly fair.
  • Developed countries tend to earn more money from their exports than they spend on imports, meaning they have a trade surplus and will become richer.
  • Many developing countries import more than they export, meaning they have a trade deficit and so become poorer, and fall greater into debt.
  • Some countries have grouped together in an attempt to make trade cheaper and easier between them, whilst increasing taxes on products brought in from outside the bloc. Examples include the European Union, Mercosur and NAFTA.
  • Many of the developing countries of the world rely on one or two main industries to sustain them.
  • Charities such as Oxfam, Comic Relief and Save the Children raise huge amounts of money for projects in developing countries.
  • Conditional aid is given by a donor country (MEDC) to a receptor country (LEDC) to finance projects in that country. In return the receptor country usually has to agree to buy other products from the from the donor country.
  • Long-term aid aims to help the country develop in the future, by introducing schemes to help things like health care, education and food production.
  • This form of aid involves the developed countries giving money to central international organisations such as the World Bank and the World Health Organisation.
  • Charities and governments send short-term aid after a natural disaster to help the country recover.
  • The main disadvantage of all forms of aid is that many developing countries have become dependent upon it for their survival.