S-Cool Revision Summary

S-Cool Revision Summary

  • Any farm can be viewed as a system, with inputs, throughputs (or processes), outputs and feedback.
  • Factors which affect the type of farming include: capital, choice, climate, labour, market, politics, relief and soils.
  • Commercial farming involves farming for a profit. These farms can be arable (just growing crops), pastoral (just rearing animals) or mixed (both arable and pastoral).
  • The arable farms of East Anglia are a good example of commercial farming, as are the cereal farms of the central United States and the Canadian Prairies.
  • Subsistence farmers only produce enough to feed themselves and their family. This is the most common form of farming in LEDC's.
  • Some of them are nomadic, meaning that they move around the country using a piece of land for a while and then moving on.
  • Intensive farms generally take up a fairly small area of land, but aim to have a very high output, through massive inputs of capital and labour.
  • Extensive farming is the direct opposite of intensive farming. The farms are large in comparison to the money injected into it or the labour used on it.
  • The main types of farming that you would find in the UK are arable, dairying and hill farming. All of them are commercial.
  • The Common Agricultural Policy and other regulations have encouraged arable farming more than dairying or hill sheep farming, and this has led to many farms becoming mixed farms.
  • Most farming in Britain tends to be intensive although some of the hill farms of Wales and Scotland could be described as extensive.
  • The Common Agricultural Policy was a policy brought in by the EU in 1962.
  • It aimed to increase agricultural production in member countries.
  • It aimed to improve the standard of living experienced by farmers.
  • It aimed to maintain prices and supplies of food at a reasonable cost to the consumers.
  • The Common Agricultural policy established minimum prices for agricultural produce, that the farmer was guaranteed to receive.
  • It led rapidly to the establishment of huge surpluses in many agricultural products, such as beef, butter, cereals, milk and wine.
  • In 1992 the policy was reformed with far less subsidies and more concern for the natural environment.
  • Between the end of the war in 1945 and 1995 over 60% of hedgerows in England and Wales had been removed.
  • The loss of hedgerows also increases the chance of soil erosion occurring as they shelter the land from wind, helping the soil to bind together.
  • The increased use of pesticides and fertilisers has led to air and water pollution.
  • Fertilisers in water can cause rapid algae growth, which can cause eutrophocation to occur.
  • Food production is one of the most important industries in most LEDC's and agriculture is often still their main source of employment.
  • Strategies have been introduced, aimed at helping the farmers become firstly self-sufficient and then begin to allow them to make a profit.
  • The Green Revolution and irrigation schemes have both led to increased agricultural yields in developing world countries.