S-Cool Revision Summary

S-Cool Revision Summary

  • The Site of a settlement describes the physical nature of where it is located.
  • Factors such as water supply, building materials, quality of soil, climate, shelter and defence were all considered when settlements were first established.
  • Aspect relates to the direction in which the land faces.
  • A supply of water was probably the single most important factor in deciding where a settlement might be located.
  • A dry point site is one which is slightly raised from the surrounding area.
  • A wet point site refers to any site which has access to water, usually through being beside a river.
  • In medieval times, defence was one of the most important factors influencing the site of a settlement.
  • Anywhere where two routes meet has great potential for settlement.
  • Many towns and cities have built up at points where it was easiest to cross a large river.
  • The situation of a settlement is the description of the settlement in relation to the other settlements and physical features around it.
  • Settlements can be described as being part of the urban hierarchy.
  • Where they stand on the hierarchy depends on a number of factors, the main ones being population, the number of services a settlement has and its sphere of influence.
  • The larger the population, the higher the settlement is place on the hierarchy.
  • The larger a settlement is, and therefore the higher it is one the urban hierarchy, the more services and functions it will have.
  • The larger a settlement is the greater its sphere of influence is likely to be, as it has a wider range of services and functions to attract people to go there.
  • There are two major ideas to consider when looking at the sphere of influence of a shop of service.
  • These are called the range and threshold population of a good.
  • The function of a settlement describes all the main activities that occur in it.
  • These can be grouped into a number of headings, such as residential, recreational, retail, government, entertainment and industrial.
  • Some settlements have one predominant function. Most settlements now are multi-functional, which means that they perform a range of different functions.
  • Two good examples of the changing functions of a settlement can be seen in Benidorm (Spain) and the South Wales mining towns.
  • Burgess based his model on the city of Chicago. At its core is the CBD, surrounded by a zone of transition and then the residential areas.
  • Hoyt used transport routes to determine where his sectors would be located, still centered around a CBD.
  • Harris and Ullman still have a central CBD, but they also have other smaller centres. Harris & Ullman also have business and industrial parks.
  • Waugh's model for a developing world city has a central CBD surrounded by high class residences, and beyond them the shanty towns. Industry is found in sector along the main roads.
  • By drawing a transect of a city, you can quite easily identify the different zones, in much the same way as Burgess and the other theorists did.
  • The CBD is where shops will locate as they know it is the most accessible point for the people of the city.
  • Many British cities still have street plans that were laid down hundreds of years ago. The roads cannot cope with the ever increasing numbers of cars and other vehicles.
  • CBD's are limited in their outwards growth by the fact that the city encompasses them.
  • The major pollution seen in urban areas is air pollution, or smog.
  • Some cities have encouraged the growth of out-of-town shopping centres to help traffic, land price and pollution problems.
  • Solutions to the problems of the CBD include pedestrianisation, park and ride schemes, ring roads, and car sharing.
  • The inner city in the 19th Century would have been the centre of industry for most cities.
  • The Victorian terraces built to house the factory workers remain in many inner cities, however in some they have been replaced by huge tower blocks.
  • Recently inner city planning has centred around rejuvenating the area in alternative ways
  • Good examples of Inner city development include Birmingham and London Docklands.
  • Shanty Towns are the illegal squatter settlements that characterise most of the large cities in the developing world.
  • They have occurred because of the huge numbers of people migrating from the rural areas to the cities.
  • They are home to many diseases and can easily be affected by environmental disasters such as landslides and flooding.
  • The Jhuggies of New Delhi occupy marginal land, usually beside transport routes or in hazardous areas.
  • Many governments have bulldozed shanty towns to try to relocate the people, but this tactic hardly ever works.
  • In Delhi schemes were introduced where the local community was closely involved in the planning and building of new houses.
  • The Rural-Urban fringe is the name given to the land the land at the edge of an urban area, where there is often a huge mixture of landuses.
  • Greenbelts were established to prevent the continued growth of many of the largest cities of England and Scotland.