Exam-style Questions: How the Body Obtains its Energy

 

 

 

  1. a) The circulatory system consists of three main parts, name them.

    (3 marks)

    b) Describe the differences between arteries and veins.

    (6 marks)

    c) What is the heart rate?

    (1 mark)

    (Marks available: 10)

    Answer

     

    Answer outline and marking scheme for question: 1

    a) Give yourself up to 3 marks for naming the heart, the blood vessels and the blood as the 3 parts of the circulatory system.

    (3 marks)

    b) To get the maximum 6 marks you have to refer to the following differences:

    1. Arteries predominantly carry oxygenated blood whilst veins predominantly carry deoxygenated blood.
    2. Arteries carry blood under high pressure whilst the pressure of blood in veins is much lower.
    3. The lumen in an artery is small in comparison to that of a vein.
    4. Veins have valves to stop the backflow of blood whereas arteries do not.
    5. Arteries carry blood away from the heart whilst veins carry blood back to the heart.
    6. Arteries have thick muscular walls while veins have walls which are much thinner in comparison.

     

    (6 marks)

    c) Ward yourself 1 mark if you said that the heart rate is the number of times the heart beats in 1 minute. You only get the mark if you included the 1 minute part.

    (1 mark)

    (Marks available: 10)

  2. a) Using the descriptions given, name the parts of the heart which are described below:

    (i) the two chambers at the top of the heart

    (ii) the two chambers at the bottom of the heart

    (iii) the vessel through which the blood leaves the heart to go to the lungs

    (iv) the vessel through which blood returns from the body to the heart

    (4 marks)

    b) Name two substances delivered to a working muscle by the blood.

    (2 marks)

    c) What is the main function of platelets?

    (1 mark)

    d) Name the two types of blood cells.

    (2 marks)

    e) Where is blood pressure commonly measured?

    (1 mark)

    (Marks available: 10)

    Answer

     

    Answer outline and marking scheme for question: 2

    a) Give yourself 1 mark for each correctly identified vessel:

    (i) Atria

    (ii) Ventricles

    (iii) Pulmonary artery

    (iv) Vena Cava

    (4 marks)

    b) Give yourself up to 2 marks if you correctly named Oxygen and Glucose as your answers.

    (2 marks)

    c) Award yourself 1 mark for stating that platelets clot to stop the body losing blood.

    (1 mark)

    d) Give yourself 2 marks for correctly naming both red blood cells and white blood cells.

    (2 marks)

    e) Blood pressure is measured at an artery in the arm, give yourself 1 mark for getting it right.

    (1 mark)

    (Marks available: 10)

  3. a) Explain what happens to the intercostal muscles, the lungs, and the diaphragm when we breathe in.

    (3 marks)

    b) State the two functions of the nasal cavity in the respiratory system.

    (2 marks)

    c) What is the tidal volume?

    (1 mark)

    d) Write down a word equation for aerobic respiration.

    (1 mark)

    (Marks available: 7)

    Answer

     

    Answer outline and marking scheme for question: 3

    a) You get 1 mark for each correct reference to the intercostal muscles, the lungs and the diaphragm:

    1. The intercostal muscles contract
    2. The lungs expand and fill with air
    3. The diaphragm contracts and flattens downwards

     

    (3 marks)

    b) You get 1 mark, with a possible maximum of 2, for each correct function:

    1. The nostril hairs filter out impurities like dust and pollen
    2. The nasal cavity warms the air to aid its journey to the lungs
    3. The nasal cavity moistens the air

     

    (2 marks)

    c) Tidal volume is the amount of air you breathe in or out with each breath, give yourself 1 mark if you got this right.

    (1 mark)

    d) Award yourself 1 mark if you wrote:

    Glucose + Oxygen = energy + Carbon dioxide + water

    (1 mark)

    (Marks available: 7)

  4. a) What is the respiratory rate?

    (1 mark)

    b) What substance is produced when we respire without oxygen?

    (1 mark)

    c) Name where gaseous exchange takes place and explain the process.

    (4 marks)

    d) Explain what happens to your tidal volume and respiratory rate when you exercise.

    (2 marks)

    e) Explain the differences between the composition of air we breathe in to the air we breathe out.

    (2 mark)

    (Marks available: 10)

    Answer

     

    Answer outline and marking scheme for question: 4

    a) You get 1 mark for correctly saying that it is how many breaths you take per minute.

    (1 mark)

    b) Award yourself 1 mark for identifying the substance Lactic acid.

    (1 mark)

    c) You get 1 mark for stating Alveoli as the place where gaseous exchange takes place and 1 mark for each of the following that you have mentioned:

    1. The capillaries carry carbon dioxide to the alveoli and oxygen away from them
    2. Carbon dioxide passes through the capillary walls into the alveoli
    3. Oxygen passes through the alveoli wall and into the capillary
    4. From the alveoli the carbon dioxide is expelled and the oxygen is absorbed

     

    (4 marks)

    d) You get two marks for stating that they both increase.

    (2 marks)

    e) Give yourself 1 mark, with a maximum of 2, for each of the following you have noted:

    1. There is more oxygen in inhaled air (21%) than in exhaled air (17%)
    2. There is more carbon dioxide in exhaled air (3%) than in inhaled air (tiny amount)
    3. There is only a little amount of water vapour in inhaled air but a lot of water vapour in exhaled air

     

    (2 marks)

    (Marks available: 10)