Exam-style Questions: Weather and Climate

  1. a) Describe the effects of tropical storms.

    (6 Marks)

    b) Why are the effects of droughts worse in LEDC's than MEDC's?

    (3 Marks)

    c) What are the consequences of drought in LEDC's.

    (3 Marks)

    (Marks available: 12)

    Answer

    Answer outline and marking scheme for question: 1

    a) Give yourself 1 - 2 marks if you mentioned the following points:

    • Strong winds/torrential rain/storm surges.
    • Damage to property/loss of life /injury.
    • Loss of communications/damage to infrastructure.

    Give yourself 3 - 4 marks if you can expand any of the points above:

    • Winds can be stronger than 150 km/hr.
    • Waves can swamp entire coastlines.
    • Torrential rain and wind can bring down power lines and snap trees that in turn cause damage.
    • As the storm approaches there will be a drop in temperature and pressure.
    • Heavy rainfall can cause flooding.

    Give yourself 5 - 6 marks if you can write in depth about the above points. You should include information from a case study:

    • Hurricane Floyd which hit in September 1999 left 26 people dead, 160,000 homeless and caused $25 billion of damage.
    • Winds were 155mph and brought down power lines.
    • 20 foot waves battered the coastline.
    • 1 million people were evacuated from Key Biscayne, Miami Beach and Fort Lauderdale.

    (6 marks)

    b) Give yourself marks if you mentioned the following points:

    • Most people are subsistence farmers.
    • Rely on crops for their food.
    • No means to buy other food.
    • Quickly run out of drinking water as many areas have a poor source of clean water.
    • Disease caused from drinking unclean water.

    (3 marks)

    c) Give yourself marks if you mentioned the following points:

    • A lack of water for drinking, cleaning, etc.
    • People have to walk many miles for water.
    • Crops fail.
    • Wildlife is killed by a lack of water.
    • Industries have to close down.
    • Overgrazing.
    • Cattle and sheep die.
    • Death especially of the very young and old.

    (3 marks)

    (Marks available: 12)

  2. a) Describe the type of weather associated with anticyclones.

    (4 Marks)

    b) Explain why this type of weather occurs.

    (6 Marks)

    c) What is pressure measured in?

    (1 Mark)

    d) What type of pressure would you expect to find during an anticyclone.

    (1 mark)

    (Marks available: 12)

    Answer

    Answer outline and marking scheme for question: 2

    a) Give yourself marks if you mentioned any of the following points:

    • Very light winds.
    • Clear skies.
    • Hot sunny weather.
    • Convectional rainfall.
    • Frost and fog in winter.

    (4 marks)

    b) Give yourself 1 - 2 marks if you can explain why one type of weather occurs.

    • Clear skies are caused by the descending air. Air descends when there is high pressure and this reduces the chance for condensation.

    Give yourself 3 - 4 marks if you explain in depth why at least two types of weather occur:

    • Because the days are hot and sunny this causes the ground to heat up air is therefore forced to rise. It then will cool and condense and rain is formed. This is convectional rainfall the rainfall is heavy and may be followed by thunder and lightning.

    Give yourself 5 - 6 marks if you can explain in depth about three or more types of weather:

    • During the winter because of the skies are clear at night the ground loses heat. This cools the air above it causing moisture to condensate around dust particles in a layer close to the grounds surface. This appears as fog.

    (6 marks)

    c) Millibars.

    (1 mark)

    d) High.

    (1 mark)

    (Marks available: 12)

  3. a) What are the two main features of climate we use for world classification?

    (2 Marks)

    b) How does latitude of a place affect its climate?

    (2 Marks)

    c) What is continentality? How does it affect climate?

    (2 marks)

    (Marks available: 6)

    Answer

    Answer outline and marking scheme for question: 3

    a) Temperature and rainfall

    (2 marks)

    b) Give yourself marks if you mentioned the following points:

    • As you move away from the equator the temperature decreases and the range increases.
    • The Tropics between 23.5o south and 23.3o north are the hottest as the sun is directly overhead.

    (2 marks)

    c) Give yourself marks if you mentioned the following points:

    • Land is heated and cools more quickly than the sea.
    • Inland areas are drier.
    • Wet winds lose their moisture over coastal area.
    • The range of temperatures are smaller in coastal areas.

    (2 marks)

    (Marks available: 6)

  4. a) Which of the statements below are true and which are false?

    • The area where there is little rainfall on the far side of a mountain is called the rain shadow.
    • Frontal rainfall is also called orographic rainfall.
    • Frontal rainfall is associated with the movement of depressions.

    (3 Mark)

    b) Explain why convectional rainfall is common in the south east of England during the summer.

    (4 Mark)

    c) What are the main causes of acid rain?

    (2 Mark)

    d) What are the main effects of global warming?

    (3 Marks)

    (Marks available: 12)

    Answer

    Answer outline and marking scheme for question: 4

    a)

    • True
    • False
    • True

    (3 marks)

    b) Give yourself 1 - 2 marks if you mentioned the following points:

    • The ground is hot, air rises, cools, condenses and it rains.

    Give yourself 3 - 4 marks if you expanded the points above:

    • Long hot days heat the surface of the earth.
    • The warm surface heats the air above it.
    • Hot air rises and cools as it does so.
    • As air cools it cannot hold as much moisture as it can when it is warm.
    • When the air reaches the dew point (the point where the air is 100% saturated) the air condenses.
    • Cumulo-nimbus clouds are formed and heavy rain falls.

    (4 marks)

    c) Give yourself marks if you mentioned the following points:

    • Power stations/sulphur dioxide/ nitrogen oxide.
    • Pollution.

    (2 marks)

    d) Give yourself marks if you mentioned the following points:

    • Polar ice caps and glaciers may melt.
    • Coastline may flood.
    • Low lying islands may disappear.
    • World climatic patterns may be altered dramatically.

    (3 marks)

    (Marks available: 12)