Exam-style Questions: Coasts

 

 

 

  1. Exam Style Questions

     

    The diagram shows part of a coastline.

    a) Which is the most resistant rock?

    (1 Mark)

    b) What is feature A?

    (1 Mark)

    c) Explain how a beach is formed.

    (4 Marks)

    d) Explain why people visit coastal areas.

    (2 Marks)

    e) Describe the problems that can occur due to the large number of visitors.

    (4 Marks)

    (Marks available: 12)

    Answer

     

    Answer outline and marking scheme for question: 1

    a) Limestone

    (1 mark)

    b) A headland.

    (1 mark)

    c) Give yourself 1 - 2 marks if you mentioned any of the following points:

    • Material deposits from the sea.
    • The bay is sheltered.
    • Material comes from the other parts of the coast.
    • Waves deposit material.

     

    Give yourself 3 - 4 marks if you expanded any of the above points:

    • Constructive waves deposit material.
    • The swash is stronger than the backwash so material is deposited.
    • Material is moved by longshore drift.
    • Constantly changing feature.

     

    (4 marks)

    d) Give yourself marks for mentioning any of the points below:

    • Swimming/Relaxing/Sightseeing.

     

    (maximum of 2 marks)

    e) Give yourself 1 - 2 marks if you mentioned the points below:

    • Litter/Traffic congestion/Traffic fumes.
    • Trampling/Wildlife disturbed/ Vandalism.
    • Loss of rural culture.

     

    Give yourself 3 - 4 marks if you can expand any of the above points you may be able to use a case study:

    • Many coastal resorts have narrow country roads that are too small to cope with the influx of visitors. Abersoch has a narrow one-way system that is often blocked at high season.

     

    (4 marks)

    (Marks available: 12)

  2. a) Explain how a wave cut platform is formed.

    (4 Marks)

    b) Why do coastal areas encourage tourism?

    (4 Marks)

    The diagram shows a sketch of Poole Harbour and some of its aquatic management plan:

    Exam Style Questions

     

    c) What is special about this area?

    (1 Mark)

    d) Describe how coastal areas can reduce the impacts that tourists have.

    (3 marks)

    (Marks available: 12)

    Answer

     

    Answer outline and marking scheme for question: 2

    a) Give yourself 1 - 2 marks if you mentioned any of the following points:

    • Notches are formed by erosion.
    • Notch enlarges.
    • Overhanging cliff cannot support its own weight.
    • Wave cut platform left behind.

     

    Give yourself 3 - 4 marks if you expanded any of the above points you may include a diagram in your answer:

    • Destructive waves attack the base of the cliff
    • Erosion occurs between the low and high tide mark.
    • Faults and joints in the rock are attacked to form wave cut notches
    • You may mention an actual method of erosion, for example, hydraulic action or corrasion.

     

    Exam Style Questions

     

    (4 marks)

    b) Give yourself 1 - 2 marks if you mentioned the points below:

    • Spending money.
    • Improving facilities in the area.
    • Creating new jobs for residents.

     

    Give yourself 3 - 4 marks if you can expand any of the above points you may be able to use a case study:

    • Blackpool has 17 million visitors per year who spend £545 million per year.
    • Money is spent on accommodation, catering, leisure and attractions, parking, transport and food shopping.
    • 29,000 jobs were created in Blackpool directly and indirectly through tourism.

     

    (4 marks)

    c) It is a site of special scientific interest.

    (1 mark)

    d) Information can be taken directly from the diagram or taken from your own studies.

    Give yourself marks if you mentioned any of the following points:

    • Different water uses are zoned.
    • Quiet areas are encouraged to protect wildlife.
    • Fences are built to stop parking in certain areas.
    • Park and ride schemes are introduced to take traffic away from these area.
    • Footpaths are built along public desire lines to reduce trampling.
    • New bins and fines are introduced to reduce litter.

     

    (3 marks)

    (Marks available: 12)

  3. Exam Style Questions

     

    The diagram shows the Holderness coastline. Some parts of the Holderness coastline are under constant attack from the erosional effects of the sea.

    a) What strategies can be used to reduce the effects of coastal erosion?

    (4 Marks)

    b) What problems can be caused by coastal management of this kind?

    (2 Marks)

    c) What is feature A?

    (1 Mark)

    d) Explain how a spit is formed.

    (5 marks)

    (Marks available: 12)

    Answer

     

    Answer outline and marking scheme for question: 3

    a) Give yourself 1 - 2 marks if you mentioned any basic method of coastal protection:

    • Sea walls/gabions.
    • Groynes/beach replenishment.
    • Rip rap.

     

    Give yourself 3 - 4 marks if you expanded any of the above points you may include a case study in your answer:

    • Groynes have been built at Mappleton to collect material moved by longshore drift.
    • Concave sea walls have been built in Withernsea to deflect the energy of the waves back out to sea.
    • Large boulders known as Rip rap have been placed along the sea wall in Withersea to absorb the energy of the waves.

     

    (4 marks)

    b) Give yourself marks if you mentioned the points below:

    • Can be expensive.
    • Not always worth the money.
    • Localised, it only protects a small area of the coast.
    • It can increase problems in the long run.
    • It can have knock on effects further down the coast.

     

    (maximum 2 marks)

    c) A spit.

    (1 mark)

    d) Give yourself 1 - 2 marks if you mentioned the following points:

    • Material builds up.
    • Material is deposited.
    • A hook is formed.
    • Material is moved.

     

    Give yourself 3 - 4 marks if you expanded any of the above points you may have included a simple diagram:

    • Material is moved along the coastline by longshore drift.
    • Material is deposited at a bend or break in the coastline.
    • The spit builds up but is often curved by the wind and wave currents.

     

    Give yourself 5 marks if you wrote in more depth you should have included a detailed diagram or case study:

    • Material is deposited in calmer waters.
    • Material builds up behind the spit forming mud flats.
    • The process of longshore drift may be explained in greater detail.

     

    Exam Style Questions

     

     

    (5 marks)

    (Marks available: 12)

  4. Exam Style Questions

     

    The diagram shows a sketch of a headland.

    a) What are features A and B?

    (2 Marks)

    b) Explain how feature C was formed.

    (5 Marks)

    c) Describe how coastlines can be protected from coastal erosion.

    (4 Marks)

    (Marks available: 11)

    Answer

     

    Answer outline and marking scheme for question: 4

    a) A = Arch.

    B = cave.

    (2 marks)

    b) Give yourself 1 - 2 marks if you mentioned the following points:

    • Sea erodes the land.
    • Corrrect order of formation given.
    • Crack-cave-arch-stack.

     

    Give yourself 3 - 4 marks if you expanded any of the above points you may have included a simple diagram:

    • Faults or joints are attacked by the sea.
    • Actual processes of erosion are mentioned (hydraulic action/corrasion).
    • Crack enlarges to form a cave.
    • Cave enlarges to form an arch.
    • The roof of the arch becomes unstable and collapses forming a stack

     

    Give yourself 5 marks if you wrote in more depth you should have included a detailed diagram or case study:

    • Methods of erosion may be explained in detail.
    • Limestone and chalk coastlines are prone to this process.
    • The arch is attacked by both aerial and sub aerial processes.

     

    Exam Style Questions

     

    (maximum 5 marks)

    c) Give yourself 1 - 2 marks if you mentioned any basic method of coastal protection:

    • Sea walls/Gabions.
    • Groynes/Beach replenishment.
    • Rip rap.

     

    Give yourself 3 - 4 marks if you expanded any of the above points you may include a case study in your answer:

    • Groynes have been built at Mappleton to collect material moved by longshore drift.
    • Concave sea walls have been built in Withernsea to deflect the energy of the waves back out to sea.
    • Large boulders known as Rip rap have been placed along the sea wall in Withersea to absorb the energy of the waves.

     

    (4 marks)

    (Marks available: 11)