Exam-style Questions: Rivers

 

  1. Exam Style Questions

     

    The diagram shows a sketch of a drainage basin.

    a) From the list below label features A and B.

    River basin, watershed, tributary confluence.

    (2 Marks)

    b) The drainage basin acts as a system. Describe how water may be transferred through his system.

    (2 Marks)

    c) Explain why the river channel in the lower course tends to be wider than in the upper course.

    (3 Marks)

    d) Describe the different types of human activities most often found in the lower course of a river basin.

    (5 Marks)

    (Marks available: 12)

    Answer

     

    Answer outline and marking scheme for question: 1

    a) A = Watershed.

    B = Tributary.

    (2 marks)

    b) Give yourself marks for mentioning any of the points below:

    • Water is moved by infiltration (where water sinks into the ground).
    • Water is moved by surface run-off/overland flow (where water flows over the lands surface).
    • Water is moved by throughflow (where the water moves underground).

     

    (2 marks)

    c) The river has reached its base level/erosion is mainly lateral.

    • The river is flowing at its fastest.
    • The river has its greatest volume.
    • The river has its greatest energy.
    • There is more erosion in the lowland areas.

     

    (3 marks)

    d) Give yourself 1 - 2 marks if you mentioned any of the following landuses:

    • Industry/docklands.
    • Cities/Towns/Settlements.
    • Arable farming/farmland.

     

    Give yourself 3 - 4 marks if you expanded any of the above points - you may have used an example:

    • ILarge towns are often found here, for example, Middlesborough.
    • Ship building industries are found in Clydeside.

     

    Give yourself 5 marks if you wrote in more depth about specific case studies:

    • Large industries such as the iron and steel industries are found in the dockland areas of Teeside close to the estuary.
    • Cities such as Liverpool have grown up around the lower course of the River Mersey. Landuses here include large residential areas, for example, Bootle and industries many of which are now based around tourism, for example, The Victoria and Albert Docks.

     

    (5 marks)

    (Marks available: 12)

  2. Exam Style Questions

     

    The diagram shows a cross section of a meander.

    a) Use the cross section to help you fill in A - C in the table below:

    Symbol: Feature: Process:
    *** River Cliff A
    B C Deposition

     

    (3 Marks)

    b) Explain how an ox bow lake is formed.

    (6 Marks)

    c) State the different ways in which a reservoir can be used.

    (3 marks)

    (Marks available: 12)

    Answer

     

    Answer outline and marking scheme for question: 2

    a)

    Symbol: Feature: Process:
    *** River Cliff A = Erosion
    B = ... C = Slip off slope Deposition

     

    (3 marks)

    b) Give yourself 1 - 2 marks if you mentioned any of the following points:

    • Erosion cuts the neck of the meander.
    • Water will take the easiest route.
    • The river will by pass the meander.

     

    Give yourself 3 - 4 marks if you expanded any of the above points - you may have used a simple diagram:

    • Erosion occurs on the outside of the bend because the current is fastest.
    • The force of the river breaks through the neck.
    • Material will deposit material along its new course.
    • This often happens in times of flood.

     

    Give yourself 5 - 6 marks if you wrote in more depth - you may also have drawn a detailed diagram:

     

    Exam Style Questions

     

    • Rapid lateral erosion occurs on the outside of the bend where the fastest current is found.
    • The force of the river breaks through the neck of the meander and the river continues to flow this way, as this is the easiest route.
    • The current will be faster in the centre of the river and deposition therefore occurs in the gentle water next to the banks.

     

    (6 marks)

    c) Give yourself marks for mentioning any of the points below:

    • Water supply.
    • Water sports.
    • Nature reserves.

     

    It would improve your answer if you could write about a case study, for example, Kielder water.

    (3 marks)

    (Marks available: 12)

  3. Exam Style Questions

     

    The diagram shows a cross section of a waterfall.

    a) Describe the main features of a waterfall using the diagram to help you.

    (3 Marks)

    b) Explain how a gorge is formed.

    (5 Marks)

    c) Describe how river basins can be managed.

    (4 marks)

    (Marks available: 12)

    Answer

     

    Answer outline and marking scheme for question: 3

    a) Give yourself marks for mentioning any of the points below:

    Plunge pool/Layer of hard rock/ Fast flowing water.

    Steep cliff/Vertical rock face/Layer of soft rock.

    (3 marks)

    b) Give yourself 1 - 2 marks if you mentioned any of the following points:

    • Waterfall moves backwards.
    • Waterfall moves backwards.

     

    Give yourself 3 - 4 marks if you expanded any of the above points - you may have drawn a simple diagram:

    • Soft rock is eroded backwards.
    • Hard rock is left hanging and cannot support its own weight.
    • Hard rock collapses.
    • This is a long process.
    • Process is continual so waterfall cuts back into the landscape.
    • Forms a steep sided gorge.

     

    Give yourself 5 marks if you wrote in more depth. You may have drawn a detailed diagram and given a case study:

     

    Exam Style Questions

     

    • You need to mention specific types of erosion that are taking place -abrasion and hydraulic action.
    • You may give a time span, or mentioned the action of ice.
    • High Force in Teesdale here the softer rock is limestone so corrosion is an extra erosive force.

     

    (5 marks)

    c) Give yourself 1 - 2 marks if you mentioned any of the following points:

    • Basic statements about:
    • Flood prevention schemes little detail given.
    • Building dams.
    • Schemes to prevent pollution.
    • By laws to prevent pollution.

     

    Give yourself 3 - 4 marks if you expanded any of the above points you will need to use a case study to gain full marks here:

    • In Exeter, flood relief channels and raised river banks (levees) have been built to reduce the risk of flooding in the city.
    • Kielder water has been created as a water supply for industry and residential areas. It holds 200,000 litres of water and supplies water to north east England and more recently due to the Kielder-Yorkshire pipeline to Yorkshire.

     

    (4 marks)

    (Marks available: 12)

  4. Exam Style Questions

    The diagram shows two flood hydrographs for rivers A and B and how they responded to the same storm.

    a) At what time did river A reach its highest level?

    (1 Mark)

     

    b) What was the peak rainfall during the storm?

    (1 Mark)

    c) Which river had the shortest lag time?

    (1 Mark)

    d) If the drainage basin of River A was forested explain what would happen to the flood hydrograph.

    (4 Marks)

    e) Afforestation can be used as a method of flood prevention. Using a place you have studied describe how flooding controlled to prevent the risk of flooding.

    (5 Marks)

    (Marks available: 12)

    Answer

     

     

    Answer outline and marking scheme for question: 4

    a) 6.40 - 6.50 am.

    (1 marks)

    b) 20mm (you will not receive any marks if you do not give the units).

    (1 marks)

    c) River A.

    (1 marks)

    d) Give yourself 1 - 2 marks if you could describe the changes but gave little explanation:

    • Give yourself 1 - 2 marks if you could describe the changes but gave little explanation:
    • The lag time would become longer.

     

    Give yourself 3 - 4 marks if you could explain these changes:

    • Leaves intercept the rainfall so less water would reach the river.
    • The trees would reduce the amount of surface runoff so it would take longer for water to get to the river so the lag time would increase.

     

    (4 marks)

    e) Give yourself 1 - 2 marks if you mentioned any of the following points but gave no case study:

    • Building a dam.
    • Building levees.
    • Straightening rivers.
    • Digging relief channels.
    • Removing silt from a riverbed.

     

    Give yourself 3 - 4 marks if you expanded any of the above points - you would need to use an example:

    • In York, the Yorkshire water Authority used a flood alleviation scheme that diverted water away from the River Foss to reduce flooding.
    • In Exeter, flood relief channels and raised river banks (levees) have been built to reduce the risk of flooding in the city.

     

    Give yourself 5 marks if you wrote in more depth about specific case studies:

    • In 1988, The River Foss Flood Alleviation scheme was opened. When the River Ouse is particularly high, water is prevented from entering the River Foss by a flood barrier and water is pumped away from the river Foss preventing floods in the residential areas around the Foss.

     

    (5 marks)

    (Marks available: 12)