Exam-style Questions: Rocks and Landscapes
a) Write a description of the type of physical landscape that you would expect to find in an area of granite rock.
b) How does the nature of granite affect the way the land is used?
c) What are the economic uses of granite?
(Marks available: 10)
Answer outline and marking scheme for question: 1
a) Give yourself 1 - 2 marks if you have mentioned the following points (your answer is most likely going to be a list). Do not give yourself marks for any human features that you include:
- Tors, High land - over 500m.
- Deep, steep v-shaped valleys.
- Marches and bogs.
Give yourself 3 - 4 marks if you have expanded on the descriptions above. Again do not give yourself marks for any human features that you include. Also you should not include any explanation for how the features are formed. Case studies will get you a mark:
- In granite areas there are tors, these are the main granite landform and can be found on moors such as Dartmoor and Bodmin Moor in South West England. Tors are blocks of granite that stand above the surrounding land. Areas of granite tend to have many marches and bogs and are areas of high rainfall and a hostile climate. In a granite landscape there are many bedding planes and joints, these are susceptible to freeze thaw weathering and so you get boulders littered with boulders. The soil and vegetation on granite rock is very poor.
b) Give yourself 1 - 2 marks if you have mentioned any of the points below, your answer is most likely to be a list with little explanation. (do not give yourself any marks for uses of the rock itself):
- Little farming/Reservoirs/Mining/Military uses/tourism.
Give yourself 3 - 4 marks if you have expanded any of the points above - you need to explain how the nature of the rock has caused these types of land uses. You should include case studies for these marks:
- The soil is poor and thin; so little farming takes place, probably just some sheep and cattle grazing.
- Because granite is impermeable, and the soil is poor, areas such as Dartmoor are ideal sites for reservoirs.
- Tourism is increasingly important in granite areas. Many tourists come for the fresh air and beautiful scenery, as granite areas tend to high and therefore sparsely populated.
- Because of its isolated and sparsely populated nature the Northern half Dartmoor is used as an army firing range, with a large camp just outside Okehampton.
c) This question is about the economic uses of granite - you do not need to include any explanation - give yourself marks for mentioning any of the points below:
- (Granite areas have copper, tin and arsenic and have traditionally been mined for these).
- Nowadays china clay is used for pottery and granite is used for building - Aberdeen is known as the Granite City. The rock can be used for such things as hearths, fireplaces and gravestones.
(Marks available: 10 marks)
a) The diagram below shows a cross section of a limestone area.
Label the features A, B, C, D and E.
b) What are the economic uses of limestone?
c) What are the advantages and disadvantages of quarrying in an area of limestone?
(Marks available: 11)
Answer outline and marking scheme for question: 2
a) A = Limestone pavements.
B = Swallow hole.
C = Stalactite.
D = Bedding plane.
E = Pillar.
b) Give yourself marks for mentioning any of the following points:
- Limestone is an excellent building stone - it has been used to builds the Houses of Parliament.
- Limestone can also be used as an industrial cleanser, farmers use it as a fertilizer, and it forms an important ingredient in cement making (it needs to be crushed or used as lime for these processes).
c) Give yourself 1 - 2 marks for mentioning the following points (they will most likely be a list with little or no expansion). Try to give a balanced argument:
Advantages: Disadvantage: Jobs created. Noise pollution. Increased income.
Improvement in roads. Increased traffic.
Give yourself 3 - 4 marks for expanding on the points above. Try to give a balanced argument:
Advantages: Disadvantage: Quarries provide much needed employment opportunities in areas where jobs are often hard to come by. The increased income means that more money is likely to be put into the local economy. The increase of industry and need for access for large lorries may lead to road improvements. Noise pollution from blasting needed to extract the rock. Visual pollution from the quarry pit itself, as well as the buildings and slag heaps. Dust pollution from rock blasting. Heavy lorries block the country roads and damage the wildlife.
(Marks available: 11)
a) Draw a labelled diagram showing the physical features of a chalk escarpment.
b) What land uses would you expect to find in a chalk and clay area?
c) How can the impact of quarrying be reduced?
(Marks available: 12)
Answer outline and marking scheme for question: 3
a) Give yourself marks for including any of the labels shown on the diagram below. Give yourself one mark for drawing the correct shape.
b) Give yourself marks including any of the following points (you do not need to include explanation):
- Clay is fertile and once drained can be used for dairying, sheep grazing and some arable farming. On chalk escarpments the main agriculture is sheep grazing.
- Many settlements were built at the bottom of the scarp or dip slope, and are called spring line settlements.
- You often find quarries in chalk and clay areas.
c) Give yourself marks for mentioning any of the following points:
- Trains can be used instead of lorries, which would cut down the traffic and damage to the roads.
- Landscaping could be used during quarrying to diminish the visual scar and also once quarrying has been completed, to try to return to nature as best as possible.
- The quarry could be restricted in size, so that it does not engulf the surrounding area.
- Lines of trees can be used to reduce noise pollution and try to improve the look of the area.
(Marks available: 12)