Exam-style Questions: Development

 

 

  1. a) What is a colony?

    (2 Marks)

    b) Explain how the current pattern of world trade benefits MEDCs.

    (3 Marks)

    c) What are the problems of primary product dependency for LEDCs?

    (3 Marks)

    d) What are Trading Blocs?

    (1 Mark)

    e) Why do countries join Trading Blocs?

    (3 Marks)

    (Marks available: 12)

    Answer

     

    Answer outline and marking scheme for question: 1

    a) In the 18th and 19th Centuries many LEDCs were colonized by European countries. These colonies provided agricultural products and raw materials cheaper than in Europe.

    (2 marks)

    b) Give yourself marks for mentioning any of the points below:

    (3 marks)

    • LEDCs export mainly raw materials, which are relatively cheap, and import manufactured goods, which are relatively expensive - they end up with a trade deficient.
    • MEDCs export manufactured goods, which are relatively expensive, and import raw materials, which are relatively cheap - they end up with a trade surplus.

     

    c) Give yourself marks for mentioning any of the points below:

    • Primary product dependency is when countries rely on one or two raw materials for a large percentage of their international trade.
    • These raw materials tend to have less value than manufactured goods.
    • Prices are dictated by the MEDCs buyers, not the producing countries.
    • Prices of raw materials fluctuate yearly and prediction is difficult.
    • Man-made alternatives to some raw materials have reduced the demand, for example, plastics have reduced the demand for rubber.

     

    (3 marks)

    d) Trading Blocks are countries that are trading partners. They have trade agreements, for example, the EU, OPEC AND NAFTA.

    (1 mark)

    e) Give yourself marks for mentioning any of the points below:

    • Some countries have grouped together in an attempt to trade more cheaply and easily between them, whilst increasing taxes on products brought from outside the Bloc.
    • They don't charge tariffs on trade with each other, to encourage trade between the groups, and protect the industries in the Bloc.

     

    (3 marks)

    (Marks available: 12)

  2. a) Describe two types of aid.

    (4 Marks)

    b) What are the arguments against giving aid?

    (4 Marks)

    c) What is Long Term aid?

    (3 Marks)

    (Marks available: 11)

    Answer

     

    Answer outline and marking scheme for question: 2

    a) Give yourself 1 - 2 marks for mentioning two types of aid, (your answer will probably lack depth and examples):

    • Conditional aid is given by a donor country (MEDC) to a receptor country (LEDC) to finance projects in that country. In return the receptor country usually has to agree to buy products from the donor country.
    • Short-term aid is also known as emergency aid - charities and governments send short-term aid after a natural disaster to help a country recover.

     

    Give yourself 3 - 4 marks for mentioning two types of aid, (your answer will probably have depth and examples):

    • Conditional aid is given by a donor country (MEDC) to a receptor country (LEDC) to finance projects in that country. In return the receptor country usually has to agree to buy products from the donor country. A good example was the building of the Aswan Dam. - - The Russians gave the Egyptians money to help build the dam, in return for Egypt allowing them unlimited access to its airfields.
    • Short-term aid is also known as emergency aid - charities and governments send short-term aid after a natural disaster to help a country recover. An example would be sending medicine and shelters to countries suffering from famines (Ethiopia and Sudan).

     

    (4 marks)

    b) Give yourself marks for including any of the points mentioned below:

    • Aid can increase the dependency of LEDCs on the donor country.
    • Inappropriate food aid can lead to a taste for food that the country cannot grow themselves. It also tends to put local farmers out of business.
    • Profits from large prestige projects can go to MEDCs.
    • Aid does not always reach the people who need it most.
    • Aid can be used as a means of exerting political pressure on the receiving country.

     

    (4 marks)

    c) Give yourself marks for including any of the points mentioned below:

    • Long-term aid aims to help the country develop in the future, by introducing schemes to help things like health care, education and food production. Many of the Non-governmental Organisations are involved in long-term schemes. The main aim is to introduce ideas and thinking that can be easily sustained by the local community. Many of the schemes introduced by Comic Relief into countries like Burkina Faso and Ethiopia are examples of long-term aid.

     

    (3 marks)

    (Marks available: 11)

  3. a) Sketch a scatter graph to show the relationship between female literacy rate and birth rate in a number of LEDCs.

    (3 Marks)

    b) Describe the relationship you have shown in your scatter graph.

    (2 marks)

    c) Why is there a relationship between female literacy and birth rate in many LEDCs?

    (3 Marks)

    d) Using one or more examples, describe and explain how water supplies could be improved in LEDCs.

    (4 marks)

    (Marks available: 12)

    Answer

     

    Answer outline and marking scheme for question: 3

    a) Give yourself marks if your diagram looks like the one below:

    Exam Style Questions

     

    (3 marks)

    b) Give yourself marks for mentioning any of the points below:

    • As female literacy rate goes up the birth rate declines.
    • This is called a negative correlation.

     

    (2 marks)

    c) Give yourself marks for mentioning any of the points below:

    • If females are better educated they will be able to look after their children better. If less children are dying couples in LEDCs are less likely to feel the need to have more children.
    • If females are better educated they will be able to understand and implement family planning and use contraception. This will cause the birth rate to go down.
    • If females are better educated then they are more likely to want to get a job - women who work tend to have fewer children.
    • In a country where women are better educated you find that they have more rights and a better standard of living - they are able to make decisions for themselves. Again this often reduces the birth rate.

     

    (3 marks)

    d) Give yourself 1 - 2 marks for mentioning any of the points below - your answer is likely to be more like a list:

     

    • Oxfam has worked in a number of countries improving the water supplies.
    • In Sudan they have provided clean water in emergencies (short term aid).
    • In Bolivia they have built many wells.

     

    Give yourself 3 - 4 marks for mentioning any of the points below - your answer is likely to have detail and expansion in it:

    • There are two problems with water supply in LEDCs; the amount and the quality. OXFAM has attempted to improve the situation in many LEDCs.
    • In Bolivia an OXFAM - supported organisation, GAMMA, has been helping to deal with the chronic water shortage; supplying materials for the community to build their own wells, which are filled from underground springs. They are also paying for machinery to dig out large reservoirs to trap rainwater fro watering the livestock.
    • In Southern Sudan OXFAM has been responsible for providing drinking water at emergency feeding centers set up by the World Food Programme. OXFAM have dug wells and put pumps on them so that people do not drink polluted surface water. They also teach people about the link between drinking contaminated water and contracting illnesses.

     

    (4 marks)

    (Marks available: 12)

  4. a) Define the term Infant mortality rate.

    (2 Marks)

    b) Define the term GNP per person.

    (2 Marks)

    c) Why is GNP per person not a very reliable indicator of the development of a country?

    (2 Marks)

    d) Many LEDCs have significant environmental problems that slow down their development. Using places you have studied describe these problems.

    (6 Marks)

    (Marks available: 12)

    Answer

     

    Answer outline and marking scheme for question: 4

    a) The number of babies who die before they reach the age of one per thousand live births per year.

    (2 marks)

    b) Gross National Product is calculated by dividing the total goods and services produced in a country by its population. It is always calculated in US dollars.

    (2 marks)

    c) Give yourself marks for mentioning any of the points below:

    • GNP is not a very reliable indicator of the development of a country as it is an average and so a country may have a small percentage of people with a large amount of the wealth.
    • Even if a country has a high GNP we cannot tell what they spend this money on - they may spend a very high percentage of it on defence.

     

    (2 marks)

    d) Give yourself 1 - 2 marks for mentioning any of the points below (your answer is most likely to be a list):

    • Problems with the water/food supply.
    • Soil erosion.
    • Extreme weather conditions.
    • Tropical diseases.
    • Natural hazards.

     

    (2 marks)

    Give yourself 3 - 4 marks for mentioning any of the points below (your answer should include some expansion):

    • In many LEDCs a high percentage of the population do not have access to save water. Often they suffer from a lack of water as well.
    • Food shortages are common in many LEDCs, and many people suffer from malnutrition.
    • In LEDCs in Asia there are often tropical storms, like hurricanes, typhoons and cyclones.

     

    Give yourself 5 - 6 marks for mentioning any of the points below (your answer should include some expansion and some examples):

    • In many LEDCs a high percentage of the population do not have access to save water. Often they suffer from a lack of water as rainfall tends to be uneven during the year - in equatorial LEDCs communications can be washed away in the rainy season.
    • Food shortages are common in many LEDCs, and many people suffer from malnutrition (this is not just a lack of food but also a lack of the right types of food) malnutrition can lead to illness and a cycle of poverty.
    • In LEDCs in Asia and the Caribbean there are often tropical storms, like hurricanes, typhoons and cyclones, these destroy crops and buildings and the repair costs can be enormous.

     

    (4 marks)

    (Marks available: 12)