Exam-style Questions: Packaging, Preserving and Food Poisoning

  1. Identify 3 reasons for/advantages of food packaging.

    (Marks available: 3)

    Answer

    Answer outline and marking scheme for question: 1

    Any 3 of the following...

    • Gives food a longer shelf-life.
    • Protects food during transportation and storage.
    • Keeps food clean from dirt and bacteria.
    • Provides information.
    • Advertises the product.
    • Holds the food in place.

    (Total = 3 marks)

  2. Why would the following people find nutritional information on a label useful...

    a) A person on a low-fat diet?

    (2 marks)

    b) Someone trying to lose weight?

    (2 marks)

    (Marks available: 4)

    Answer

    Answer outline and marking scheme for question: 2

    a) A person on a low fat diet would find out how much fat is found in a product per 100g. Some labels will split the figures given in to the different types of fat - saturated and polyunsaturated.

    (2 marks)

    b) Someone trying to lose weight would find it useful to see the calorie content per 100g. Some labels will also give details of the recommended amount of calories to be consumed each day.

    (2 marks)

    (Total = 4 marks)

  3. Why is polystyrene a suitable packaging for a take-away burger?

    (Marks available: 1)

    Answer

    Answer outline and marking scheme for question: 3

    Because it is a poor conductor of heat and therefore acts as an insulated container.

    (Total = 1 mark)

  4. Identify the 3 main reasons why chilling is such a popular method of preserving foods.

    (Marks available: 3)

    Answer

    Answer outline and marking scheme for question: 4

    • Colour is retained.
    • Flavour is retained.
    • Less loss of vitamins.

    (Total = 3 marks)

  5. Name 2 different methods of preserving each of the following foods:

    a) Milk

    (2 marks)

    b) Fish

    (2 marks)

    c) Strawberries

    (2 marks)

    d) Chicken

    (2 marks)

    (Marks available: 8)

    Answer

    Answer outline and marking scheme for question: 5

    Any 2 of the following for each food...

    a) Milk = Pasteurisation, drying, UHT, sterilisation.

    (2 marks)

    b) Fish = Canning, freezing, chilling, salting, smoking, vacuum packs.

    (2 marks)

    c) Strawberries = Canning, freezing, irradiation, jam-making, chilling.

    (2 marks)

    d) Chicken = Canning, freezing, vacuum packs.

    (2 marks)

    (Total = 8 marks)

  6. Can you work out why it is important that food handlers...

    a) remove jewellery?

    (2 marks)

    b) cover cuts with blue plasters?

    (2 marks)

    c) remove outdoor clothes when preparing food?

    (2 marks)

    d) wash hands after taking a break?

    (2 marks)

    e) report any illnesses to their supervisor?

    (2 marks)

    (Marks available: 10)

    Answer

    Answer outline and marking scheme for question: 6

    a) Jewellery should be removed because it can fall into food and because food and bacteria can become trapped in it.

    (2 marks)

    b) Cuts should be covered with blue plasters so that the plaster can be clearly seen if it falls into food (no foods are bright blue!).

    (2 marks)

    c) Outdoor clothes should not be taken into food production areas because they can transfer dust and dirt onto the food.

    (2 marks)

    d) Germs obtained from using the toilet or from eating and drinking can easily contaminate food.

    (2 marks)

    e) Handlers with coughs, colds and tummy upsets can easily infect food and should remain off work until a doctor has cleared them.

    (2 marks)

    (Total = 10 marks)

  7. Processing food provides us with a wide range of food products.

    a) For each method of processing give examples of different food products we can buy. An example is given to help you.

    Method of Processing Food Product
    Accelerated Freeze Dry (AFD) Coffee Granules
    Canning
    Freezing
    Cook/Chill
    Ultra Heat Treatment

    (4 marks)

    b) Give three advantages to the consumer of shrink wrapped packaging.

    Copyright S-cool

    (3 marks)

    c) The sales of convenience foods has risen in recent years.

    Give three reasons for this increase.

    (3 marks)

    (Marks available: 10)

    Answer

    Answer outline and marking scheme for question: 7

    a) Accept any known product processed in this way:

    e.g. canning: baked beans, soup, fruit, peas.

    freezing: fish fingers, chips, vegetables, meat.

    cook/chill: lasagne, curry, ready made meals.

    UHT: milk, fruit juice, soup, ready made meals.

    (4 marks)

    b) Three from:

    • Cheap, cheaper to buy.
    • Recyclable - environmental issues - reduced packaging, range of qualities/thickness.
    • See through - product easily seen by consumer.
    • Lightweight; takes up less space.
    • Keeps hygienic - dust, dirt.
    • Keeps topping in place.

    (3 marks)

    c) Three from:

    • Wider range available.
    • Busy lifestyle - quick, saves time.
    • More working careers.
    • Eat at different times.
    • Need for quick meals / often cooked in the microwave.
    • Better quality.
    • People may have fewer cooking skills - easier to cook.
    • Better advertising.
    • More attractive packaging.
    • Less washing up.
    • Can be more economical, cheaper.
    • Better storage facilities.
    • Improved taste.
    • 'Healthy' ranges available.

    (3 marks)

    (Total = 10 marks)

  8. This recipe for a Spaghetti Bolognese includes both fresh and convenience foods.

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    Recipe for Spaghetti Bolognese

    • 200g fresh minced meat
    • 1 Onion
    • 50g fresh mushrooms
    • 200g spaghetti (dried)
    • 5ml cooking oil
    • 370g Jar of Bolognese sauce

    a) Give two reasons why fresh products are added to convenience foods in a recipe.

    (2 marks)

    b) (i) Which food in the product provides protein?

    (1 mark)

    (ii) Give two reasons why protein is needed in the diet.

    (2 marks)

    c) Which food in the product provides carbohydrate?

    (1 mark)

    d) The jar of Bolognese Sauce may contain sugars. Give three reasons why sugar should be reduced in the diet.

    (3 marks)

    (Marks available: 9)

    Answer

    Answer outline and marking scheme for question: 8

    (a) Two from:

    • Larger quantity may be produced, suit own taste, more economical, higher nutritive value, more vitamins and minerals.
    • Better flavour.
    • Better texture.
    • Healthier.
    • Better texture / improved appearence.

    (2 marks)

    (b) (i) One from:

    • Minced Meat
    • Spaghetti

    (1 mark)

    (ii) Why needed:

    • Growth
    • Repair
    • Energy

    (2 marks)

    (c) (i) One from:

    • Spaghetti
    • Sauce Mix

    (ii) Needed for energy.

    (1 mark)

    (d) Three from:

    • Empty Calories
    • Little Nutritional value
    • Toothy decay
    • Bad for your teeth
    • Greater risk of obesity
    • Addictive

    (3 marks)

    (Total = 9 marks)

  9. A food manufacturer has decided to produce a 'Cook-in-Sauce'. This will be packaged in a jar.

    a) Identify and explain a sensory analysis procedure that would be undertaken in the test kitchens to select the final sauce.

    (5 marks)

    b) Explain a production system suitable for the manufacture of this sauce.

    (5 marks)

    (Marks available: 10)

    Answer

    Answer outline and marking scheme for question: 9

    a) Five from:

    • Explanation carried out in a quiet place.
    • Individual testing.
    • Company testing.
    • Public testing.
    • Water to clear palate.
    • Range of sensory qualities checked.
    • Sensory limitation - blind fold, plain plates, identical dishes, identical portion sizes.
    • Transfer of flavour / clean spoons.
    • Some form of ranking / rating and final choice made.

    (5 marks)

    b) Batch

    • Specific numbers required.
    • Products made in one run.
    • Ideal for production with shorter shelf life.
    • Cheaper than job production.
    • Materials purchased in bulk which reduces unit cost.
    • Less skilled labour cost spread over larger number of products.
    • Require a steady demand of all goods are sold.

    Flow

    • Mass production on a large scale.
    • Individuals contribute to end product.
    • Cheap products.
    • High initial cost to firm to set up plant.
    • Bulk purchase of ingredents.
    • Allows for CAM at many stages.
    • Break down can be very costly.

    (5 marks)

    (Total = 10 marks)

  10. Food manufacturers can control temperature to slow down or prevent growth of micro organisms. There are a number of cold processing methods, e.g. two of these are:

    Cook/Chill

    Accelerated Freeze Drying (AFD)

    For each these methods explain below:

    • How the food is preserved
    • The advantages of the method.

    a) Cook/chill:

    (5 marks)

    b) AFD:

    (5 marks)

    (Marks available: 10)

    Answer

    Answer outline and marking scheme for question: 10

    a) Cook/chill:

    Nearest to 'home made', wide range, no freezer needed, no thawing necessary, useful in schools/hospitals where food needed in volume, portion control reduces waste, reheated centrally, transported in heated trolley.

    (5 marks)

    b) A.F.D.:

    No special storage, light in weight, good colour, flavour and nutritive value as not subjected to very high temperature, quickly re-constituted, increasing range of products including snacks.

    (5 marks)

    (Total = 10 marks)

  11. Use the information below to help you answer the following questions:

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    The graph in Fig. 4 shows the growth in non-meat eaters during the period 1984-1997.

    (i) Why is this information important for a food product development team?

    (2 marks)

    (ii) Give two reasons for the increase in non-meat eaters.

    (4 marks)

    (Marks available: 6)

    Answer

    Answer outline and marking scheme for question: 11

    (i)

    • It can focus their attention on meeting the needs of this group.
    • They can feel confident that the product will have consumers who are interested in their new product. Market/promote accordingly.
    • They can monitor these charts (as new ones are produced) to see if they should still maintain their efforts in this sector of the market.
    • If they can produce a sound product then this may increase the change further which will again enhance their revenue.
    • They are conversant with consumer trends and can research accordingly. Know the questions to ask consumers.
    • They can look closely at what other stores are producing to influence their products in this sphere.
    • Recognition of sales increase/profit.

    (2 marks)

    (ii)

    • BSE scare.
    • Media (television/radio/magazines, etc.) - programmes an articles related to the rearing of animals for meat production.
    • Talks/lectures given by vegetarians to encourage others to adopt their diet.
    • Health of the Nation - encouraging the population to eat less red meat (high in saturated fatty acids).
    • Increase in coronary heart disease - therefore being advised to eat less meat.
    • Studies show that vegetarians as a group may have lower risks of developing heart disease.
    • Cancer research findings are suggesting that we should eat less animal products and increase our vegetable intake (plus use more pulses). Some people who are not aware of the full implications of becoming a vegetarian perceive that omitting meat from their diet and consuming more vegetables is the answer and categorises them as vegetarians.
    • More parents are becoming vegetarians and therefore influence other members of the family.
    • Influence of other cultures and religions on our diet.
    • Peer group pressure within the teenage range.
    • Influence of diets of famous people.
    • Some believe that the cost of alternative protein sources is going to reduce their food budget.

    (4 marks)

    (Total = 6 marks)