Exam-style Questions: Ingredients and Nutrition

  1. Name 3 protein foods that can be eaten by vegans (strict vegetarians).

    (Marks available: 3)

    Answer

    Answer outline and marking scheme for question: 1

    Any 3 of the following foods...

    • Nuts
    • Soya products (tofu, textured vegetable protein)
    • Lentils
    • Pulses
    • Cereals

    (Total = 3 marks)

  2. Which key nutrients would a pregnant woman require in larger amounts if she is to provide for her unborn child's...

    a) blood?

    (2 marks)

    b) bones?

    (2 marks)

    (Marks available: 4)

    Answer

    Answer outline and marking scheme for question: 2

    a) Blood = Needs Iron and Vitamin B12.

    (2 marks)

    b) Bones = Need calcium, Vitamin D and phosphorus.

    (2 marks)

    (Total = 4 marks)

  3. Which 2 vitamins are killed by heat?

    (Marks available: 2)

    Answer

    Answer outline and marking scheme for question: 3

    Vitamins B and C (so don't over-cook those carrots!)

    (Total = 2 marks)

  4. What are the 2 most effective ways to lose weight?

    (Marks available: 2)

    Answer

    Answer outline and marking scheme for question: 4

    • Reduce calorie intake
    • Exercise

    (Total = 2 marks)

  5. Adapt 4 of the following lasagne ingredients to make the recipe higher in fibre and lower in fat.

    • Minced beef
    • Lasagne pasta
    • Milk
    • Cheese
    • Flour
    • Margarine

    (Marks available: 4)

    Answer

    Answer outline and marking scheme for question: 5

    Any 4 of the following...

    • Minced beef = buy 'trimmed' beef or 'lower-fat' beef (or use chicken instead).
    • Lasagne pasta = use wholemeal.
    • Milk = use semi or skimmed milk.
    • Cheese = use low-fat or reduced-fat varieties.
    • Flour = use wholemeal flour.
    • Margarine = use reduced-fat or low-fat spread instead.

    (Total = 4 marks)

  6. Give the full name and definition of the following ways of measuring amounts of nutrients needed...

    a) DRV

    (2 marks)

    b) EARs

    (2 marks)

    c) RDA

    (2 marks)

    d) RNI

    (2 marks)

    (Marks available: 8)

    Answer

    Answer outline and marking scheme for question: 6

    a) DRV = Dietary Reference Values:

    (1 mark)

    These are estimates of the nutritional requirements of different groups of healthy people of different ages.

    (1 mark)

    b) EARs = Estimated Average Requirements:

    (1 mark)

    These are an estimation of the needs of most people in a particular group.

    (1 mark)

    c) RDA = Recommended Daily Allowance:

    (1 mark)

    This amount is often used on packaging to indicate whether or not a food product is a good source of a particular nutrient.

    (1 mark)

    d) RNI = Reference Nutrient Intake:

    (1 mark)

    This is the amount of a nutrient, which will satisfy 97.5% of the population in a particular specified group.

    (1 mark)

    (Total = 8 marks)

  7. (a) The symbols in Fig. 1 below are used by food manufacturers on the labels of food products.

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    One of these symbols shows that the food product is suitable for vegetarians. Write down the letter of this label.

    (1 mark)

    Fig. 2 shows pictures of a main course vegetarian product and the same product but using meat.

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    (b) Give two reasons why manufacturers often try to produce vegetarian food products that have similar qualities to meat products.

    (4 marks)

    (c) Name three protein foods that would be suitable for use in a vegetarian main course food product.

    (3 marks)

    (Marks available: 8)

    Answer

    Answer outline and marking scheme for question: 7

    a) C

    (1 mark)

    b) Two from:

    • Maintain product interest
    • Consumers can feel that the product must be good if it is eaten by someone of note.
    • They place trust in the image conveyed by famous people.
    • Perhaps they also feel they will become like the person who is advertising the product - enhanced self esteem.
    • The product is noticed which is important to the food manufacturer who is fighting for their product to take precedence over the others which surround it.
    • Making a wise food choice is a complex matter and without knowledge it is sometimes easier if someone else makes this for you.
    • Increase sales.

    (4 marks)

    c) Two from:

    • It may then appeal to meat eaters too if a vegetarian wishes to serve these foods at meal times with those who are normally meat eaters. Increasing market.
    • The vegetarian does not feel that their diet is so different from those of others which can assist those who do not want to make a fuss about their dietary needs, etc, customer care.
    • For those who have recently become vegetarian or are considering this change (even if just to reduce the quantity of red meat in their diet) they will have an expectation of what the dish should taste like and therefore will be prepared to try this dish. It can make the purchase of components and the production costs of the dish cheaper etc., if the same suppliers and equipment can be utilised (these could be two seperate points).
    • Nutrient point qualified/protein.

    (3 marks)

    (Total = 8 marks)

  8. a) Explain the difference between a lacto-vegetarian and a vegan.

    (2 marks)

    b) Explain why the range of vegan food products is greater in a health food store than in a supermarket.

    (2 marks)

    (Marks available: 4 )

    Answer

    Answer outline and marking scheme for question: 8

    a) A vegan will avoid all products that come from animals that are used for foods, toiletries, clothes and household goods. Other vegetarians may avoid foods that are obtained from the slaughter of animals, such as meat, fish and poultry.

    (2 marks)

    b) One mark for each of the following, up to a maximum of 2 marks.

    • At one time vegan products would only have been available in a Health Food store.
    • The expectation is that a greater range would be on sale.
    • Due to stores past credibility consumers would feel that their dietary needs are understood and given full consideration.
    • Outlets cater for special dietary needs whether medical or by choice.
    • This is also a place where they can obtain supplements for their diet i.e. vitamin B12, gain advice, purchase other foods which they consider have been produced 'vegan friendly', or comply with their dietary needs.
    • They may also be able to order vegan products upon request.
    • The number of vegans is by comparison very small and in this environment the food manufacturers know that their goods will reach a maximum market.
    • Supermarkets would not consider it economic to stock those products with such a low volume and slow turnover.

    (2 marks)

    (Total = 4 marks)

  9. Fig. 5 shows a picture of a Weight Watchers main course dish with an ingredient list and cooking instructions.

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    COOKING INSTRUCTIONS*
    COOK FROM FROZEN
    Before serving check that the food is piping hot throughout, if not cook further.
    For best results, CONVENTIONAL COOKING
    1. Pre-heat oven to 190°C (375°F) or gas mark 5 (for fan assisted ovens adjust temperature/time accordingly).
    2. Remove film lid and place on a baking sheet.
    3. Cook for 45 minutes in top half of oven.
    4. Take out of oven.
    5. Serve using a broad fish slice.
    MICROWAVE COOKING
    Remove film lid.
    To microwave Firstly cook on full power Then cook on defrost (30% power) Stand
    650W or Category B 8 minutes 6 minutes 1 minute
    750W or Category D 6 minutes 5 minutes 1 minute
    These are for guidance only. Cooking times may need to be adjusted to account for variations in storage conditions, oven performance (consult your appliance handbook) and the number of trays being heated.

    a) Give three reasons why this product would appeal to consumers who are watching their weight.

    (3 marks)

    b) What is the difference in cooking time between the use of a conventional and microwave (750 watts) oven when cooking this product?

    (1 mark)

    c) Give three reasons why food manufacturers offer consumers the choice of cooking this food product in a conventional or micro-wave oven.

    (3 marks)

    d) The food product in Fig. 5 can be cooked in a microwave oven.

    Identify three factors which need to be taken into account when selecting the packaging material for the container of this food product.

    (3 marks)

    (Marks available: 10)

    Answer

    Answer outline and marking scheme for question: 9

    a) Three from:

    • Looks attractive.
    • The symbol will make them feel that consideration has been given to their needs; portion size, number of calories that should be taken at meals, etc., therefore they will not exceed the intake recommended.
    • Feel good factor and taking positive steps to reduce/maintain their weight.
    • May not feel tempted to eat more after this as it is a recommended portion size.
    • Looks like a 'normal' meal therefore they will not feel that they are on their diet - others may not notice either.
    • To help them adjust to meals which will assist them in losing/maintaining their weight.
    • Eliminates the dieter from thinking what to eat...restricts choice and this may be of considerable help to many who would otherwise make a much larger portion and use too much fat, etc., in the preperation (no time to weigh ingredients accurately).
    • No preperation required and therefore no reason to nibble whilst cooking and therefore exceed their quota.
    • It sends a positive message to others who the consumer may be eating with that they are serious about their approach to weight loss, maintaining their weight.

    b) 34 minutes/less time in a microwave/more time in a conventional oven.

    c) Three from:

    • To appeal to a greater range of consumers; those who have microwave cookers only or conventional ovens only.
    • To give the consumer the option which need not be made when shopping.
    • To meet some consumer needs i.e. good for those parents who are purchasing this item for their children to cook - using the microwave oven can be seen as a safer option. Plus for the elderly too.
    • If the consumer has forgotten to remove it from the deep freeze, can be defrosted in the microwave.
    • Reducing fuel costs which is important for the consumer (manufacturer can identify with this too).
    • If more than one being cooked and the oven is being used for other things this may be a preferable method in terms of fuel costs....again pleasing the consumer.
    • Some consumers prefer the effect of dry heat on foods which will be the result of conventional cooking - especially colour/texture. Meets consumer needs.

    (Total = 10 marks)

  10. Fish fingers were launched in 1955 and they are still popular today.

    The egg and breadcrumb casing used on fish fingers has been used in the other fish products listed in Fig. 6.

    a) Explain the function of the egg and breadcrumb casing.

    (2 marks)

    b) Give two other edible casings that are used for savoury food products.

    (2 marks)

    c) Part of the specification for fish fingers was:

    • a shaped and cased product
    • a nutritious filling

    You have been asked by a food manufacturer to design a new savoury product for the snack market which also meets the specificaton points listed above.

    (i) Sketch and label your design showing the materials you have chosen.

    (2 marks)

    (ii) Explain how your design meets the specification.

    (4 marks)

    (Marks available: 10)

    Answer

    Answer outline and marking scheme for question: 10

    (a) Any two points:

    • To protect the fish (or other fillings) from disintegrating whilst cooking. The more able candidate may relate the point to the coagulation/setting of an egg and preventing the filling from overcooking.
    • Reference to taste, texture, appearance.

    (2 marks)

    (b) Two from:

    • Pastry - various types
    • Bread
    • Pancakes
    • Pasta (ravioli/cannelloni)
    • Mashed potato

    (2 marks)

    c) (i) One mark for the sketch which show the shape, casing and filling.

    One mark if the labels display clearly the casing (this may be named i.e. shortcrust pastry casing) and filling ingredients.

    (2 marks)

    (ii) One mark for each point made but credit should only be given if it relates to the specification.

    • Mention of the shape.
    • Relating to the snack market i.e. shape, size, can be eaten hot or cold.
    • Reference to the casing and its function.
    • Nutrients included and where they are found.
    • Reference to shape.
    • Reference to can be eaten hot or cold.
    • Reference to size.

    (4 marks)

    (Total = 10 marks)

  11. a) Explain why this product would appeal to consumers who are on a low fat diet.

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    (3 marks)

    b) Fig. 2 shows a chicken product which is part of a complete meal. Give a 'serving suggestion' for this product that will provide a well balanced low fat main course.

    Give reasons for your choice.

    (i) Serving suggestion

    (2 marks)

    (ii) Reasons for choice

    (2 marks)

    c) Explain why the food manufacturer decided to char-grill the chicken.

    (3 marks)

    (Marks available: 10)

    Answer

    Answer outline and marking scheme for question: 11

    a) Three from:

    • States a very high percentage fat free, or low in fat.
    • Reduced calories (which appeals to many who are trying to reduce their body weight too).
    • Looks appealing.
    • A contrast of textures and flavours - often low fat food products can be though of as boring or dull.
    • Fruit dressing and garnish are compatible with dietary guidlines.
    • Chicken breast meat again confirms to the consumer low fat.
    • Portion does not look small.

    (3 marks)

    b) Serving Suggestion:

    • 1 mark for source of carbohydrate... if potatoes should state how these are to be cooked - low fat methods.
    • 1 mark for vegetables.
    • 1 mark for reason for carbohydrates.
    • 1 mark for reason for vegetables.
    • Accept reasoned nutritional points for whole meal.

    Carbohydrate:

    • Baked potato - carbohydrate + protein sparing action. NSP and vitamin C increase as skin included. If cooked in the microwave oven, will not take long and thus be compatible with the cooking time required for this dish. Not necessary to serve with low fat spread or butter as juices from the chicken dish will moisten.
    • Rice/pasta - as for potato but not enhancing vitamin C (but vitamin B) etc.

    Vegetables:

    • Green vegetable - steamed/boiled - to add bulk (increase satiety value)/NSP low in kcal., colourful, enhance vitamin A and some non-haemoglobin iron.
    • Carrots (contrasting colour vegetable) - boiled/steamed - to add bulk (increase satiety value) NSP, low in Kcal., colourful, increase vitamin A. Not too expensive.
    • Green salad may be suggested.

    (4 marks)

    c) Three from:

    • Gives more flavour to the chicken - chicken does not have a great deal of flavour particularly if the skin is removed as it is low in fat.
    • The method does not increase the fat content.
    • The method of cooking is popular and reminiscent of evening meals cooke doutside on the barbecue.
    • Not a method normally associated with low fat so provides appeal.
    • Adds colour and therefore interest to the finished dish.
    • Not texture/crispy.

    (3 marks)

    (Total = 10 marks)

  12. a) In chicken the iron is low in comparison to other meals.

    (i) Why is iron needed in our diet?

    (2 marks)

    (ii) Explain how a consumer can ensure that sufficient iron is eaten.

    (3 marks)

    b) Dietary analysis is a vital source when a food manufacturer develops a new low fat food product.

    Explain why a nutritionist is employed to interpret the nutrition profile during the products development.

    (5 marks)

    (Marks available: 10)

    Answer

    Answer outline and marking scheme for question: 12

    a) (i)

    • Iron is a component of haemoglobin (the substance which gives the red blood cells their colour). Haemoglobin is required to transport oxygen around the body to every cell for the production of energy. It is also involved in various enzyme systems.
    • Prevents anaemia.
    • Red blood production.

    (2 marks)

    (ii)

    • Use a nutrition (IT) programme to check the content of iron in the foods that they are consuming and compare this to requirements. If below then check against an 'iron rich' food chart and see how modifications can be made.
    • Eat fortified breakfast cereals.
    • Eat non-haem iron sources with vitamin C to assist absorption.
    • Use lean red meat occasionally in diet.
    • Eat green vegetables regularly.
    • Pulses can provide a reasonable supply. Eat with vitamin C rich foods.
    • Take an iron rich supplement.

    (3 marks)

    b) He/she can advise:

    • How the amount of fat compares to the nutrition targets set and in this instance the company specification of a low fat product.
    • How the reduction of the ingredient which is increasing the fat content to unreasonably high levels will effect the other nutrients and whether the final product will then be nutritionally sound for the target group.
    • On the use of alternative ingredients to provide the effects that a higher fat content ingredient will give (perhaps use more herbs, seasoning to provide flavour aroma, etc).
    • On the reduction of fat content may have an effect on the storage of the product and ways to counter-act this.
    • By providing knowledge of new ingredients that have come onto the market which may provide useful alternatives.
    • As soon as an idea is mooted which will hasten the product development and save the company time and money.
    • On the proportion of types of fatty acids present - which is important in terms of nutrition labelling.

    (5 marks)

    (Total = 10 marks)