S-Cool Revision Summary
S-Cool Revision Summary
Design specification: Written early on in the development of a product and is quite general and wide.
Product specification: More detailed specification, usually written when the final product has been decided upon.
Manufacturing specification (Higher tier): Very detailed specification which would be given to the food manufacturer so that identical products can be produced on a large scale.
How to design a manufacturing specification...
Here are some ideas of what to include to produce a successful specifications...
- Specific dimensions (with a sketch).
- Specific qualities of ingredients.
- Names of ingredients with weights and proportions to use.
- Specific tolerances.
- The size to which ingredients must be cut.
- Types of cooking methods and cooking temeratures with critical control points.
- Cooling times and methods.
- Finishing techniques.
- Specific details of packaging requirements.
- Wording for the label.
- Sometimes a photograph is used to help a manufactuer to meet that specification...
Development of a new product
Stages in product development:
Packaging and labelling of a food product
There are loads of different techniques designers use to sell a product - from bright colours, to simplistic text - depending on the age group of the people they're trying to attract. However, there are some limitations involved in the design process: the material used for the packaging needs to be suitable for the food product it is holding.
For example, if the product is a 'hand-held, take-away item', the packaging is likely to be...
- See-through so the consumer can quickly see what they are buying.
- Easy to remove.
- An insulator if the product needs to be kept hot (Polystyrene, for example).
- Grease and moiture resistant to keep hands clean.
- Easy to dispose of and recyclable, ideally.
Suitable materials could be...
|Plastic:||This is lightweight, moisture-resistant and see-through, but can be difficult to recycle.|
|Polystyrene:||This is lightweight, moisture-resistant and keeps food warm, but can be difficult to recycle.|
|Paper:||Lightweight, easy to recycle and print on, but not resistant to moisture or grease.|
|Cardboard:||Easy to print on, can be shaped to provide support, can be recycled, more moisture-resistant than paper.|
Take-away products will not always show details of ingredients, weight, storage details etc. However, if the product is sealed in a wrapper, it should show the following legally required information:
- Name and address of manufacturer/importer/retailer.
- List of ingredients in descending order of weight.
- Weight, or quantity.
- Storage/cooking instructions
- An indication of when it should be consumed by (an 'eat-by', for instance).
- Name or description of the product.
Risk assessment means making an assessment of any risk to a food product during its production. This involves working out what chances there are of a food product being damaged or made incorrectly.
- Thinking about what could happen.
- Planning how to prevent it from happening.
These regulations involve identifying the Critical Control Points (CCPs) which could be any part that could affect the finished quality of the product.
- Weighing of ingredients.
- Time - chilling, cooking, setting.
- Shaping or division of dough.
- Temperature - in storage, cooking, etc.
- Consistency of mixtures.
- Hygiene - of equipment, ingredients and handlers.
To establish a HACCP system for a product, a detailed analysis of the possible hazards needs to be undertaken. Critical Control Points can then be identified and appropriate control and monitoring systems put in place. These could include...
- Thermometers on fridges/ovens.
- Timing devices on ovens/chilling units.
- Alarms which ring if any of these devices show a fault.
- Visual checks
- Micro-biological tests on food and equipment