S-Cool Revision Summary

S-Cool Revision Summary

Food Production Systems

A food production system has three parts

  1. Input: The different ingredients, materials, machinery and items which go into the system.
  2. Process: The different things that happen to the Input which change it into the Output.
  3. Output: The finished food product.

This table shows you what precautions are taken during the food production process...

Production: Raw materials must be of high quality.
Storage: High-risk foods should be stored below 5 degrees Celsius
Preparation: Equipment and food handlers must comply with hygiene regulations.
Cooking: Food must be cooked thoroughly to prevent food poisoning.
Transportation: Temperature control may be necessary for high-risk foods.
Serving: Food must be kept below 5 degrees Celsius or above 63 degrees Celsius.

Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP)

If a food manufacturer wishes to produce products which are of high and consistent quality s/he will need to identify areas of production where inaccuracies (hazards) could occur. These inaccuracies are known as hazards.

The food manufacturer must then design checks to be put into place to prevent hazards from occurring.

  • H - Hazard
  • A - Analysis
  • C - Critical
  • C - Control
  • P - Points

A team of people will identify the hazards, which could be from micro-organisms, chemicals, people or machinery.

A CCP (Critical Control Point) could be any part of the production process, which could affect the finished quality of the product. For example...

Weighing of ingredients: Before and after preparation/cooking.
Time: Of cooking, chilling, mixing, etc.
Shaping: Of mixtures, division of dough, etc.
Temperature: Storage of foods, cooking and chilling.
Consistency of mixtures: During making and when cooked/chilled or stored.
Hygiene: Of raw ingredients, food handlers, machinery and the finished dish.

Each of the CCPs wil have a tolerance level - for example, food could be cooked for between 20 and 22 minutes. These may also be known as critical limits.

Once these CCPs have been identified, checks can be put in place that will monitor a product's progress through the production process.

These checks could be...

  1. Visual.
  2. Electronic.
  3. Scientific.

Quality control

This is the method used to check and test a product as it is made.

When a product prototype gets into production, the following checks need to be made...

  • Quality of ingredients.
  • Working to designated tolerances (for instance, exact size/weight/viscosity/etc.).
  • Size/thickness/quantity.
  • Shape.
  • Texture.
  • Colour.
  • Uniformity.

You can show how quality control is achieved in your design folder by...

  • Identifying the stages in the production of your food prototype.
  • Using the list given above to prompt ideas for checks.
  • Thinking about how you can carry out checks for quality at each stage.
  • Describing the checks that you will make.
  • Showing how you will correct problems after checks have been made.

Standard food components

These are ready-prepared ingredients used during the manufacture of the food products.

Advantages of using standard food components: Disadvantages of using standard food components:
1. Products are of a constant quality, size, shape and flavour. 1. Products must be available, in the right quality, whenever they are required.
2. It saves time and therefore money. 2. Food producer has no input into the quality or production of the standard food component.
  3. Prices may rise without warning.

Sensory Evaluation

This process enables food manufacturers to find out what consumers think of their product and to ensure that all the food produced by a production line is identical.

The food will be tested using organoleptic factors, meaning that they are using our different sense organs. Such as:

  • Texture (mouthfeel)
  • Taste or flavour
  • Appearance or colour
  • Smell or aroma

In order to ensure that sensory testing is considered to be 'fair', it is important that conditions are carefully controlled. This will involve:

  1. Sipping water between each sample to remove the taste of the previous food.
  2. Using separate booths so that testers are not influence by each other.
  3. Labelling food with numbers or letters so that the tester does not recognise a brand name.
  4. Having a well-lit room with the minimum of noise and smells.
  5. Using clean cutlery and utensils for each sample.
  6. Sometimes using blindfolds (blind-testing) so that the tester is not influenced by the appearance of the food.
  7. Each sample of food being the same size.
  8. Having a minimum of 6 testers.

Testers must not be:

  • Suffering from a condition which would affect their taste (for example, smoking, a heavy cold, or taking strong medication).
  • Allergic to foods or ingredients.

Different types of sensory tests

  1. Difference or Discrimination Tests.
  2. Grading Tests.
  3. Profiles.