Exam-style Questions: Ecosystems

  1. a) Describe the type of vegetation found in the Mediterranean Woodlands.

    (3 marks)

    b) Explain how this type of vegetation has adapted to its climate.

    (4 marks)

    c) Describe the impact humans have had in Mediterranean woodlands.

    (4 marks)

    (Marks available: 11)

    Answer

    Answer outline and marking scheme for question: 1

    a) Give yourself marks if you mentioned any of the following points:

    • Deciduous forest/Coniferous forests/Dense shrub land.
    • Oaks and pines/Maquis/Garrigue.

    (3 marks)

    b) Give yourself 1 - 2 marks if you mention the following points:

    • Waxy leaves/Long roots/Fire resistant
    • Give yourself 3 - 4 marks if you can expand the above points:
    • Waxy leaves prevent water loss.
    • Long roots reach water found deep below the surface.
    • Small trees and shrubs are fire resistant.
    • Rosemary rolls up its leaves to reduce moisture loss.
    • Thick bark protects against the heat.

    (4 marks)

    c) Give yourself marks if you mentioned any of the following points:

    • Much woodland has been cleared for fuel and building materials.
    • Areas have been cleared for farming.
    • Topsoil containing nutrients is washed away.
    • Grazing has caused damage to shrub land.
    • Fires have destroyed woodland.
    • Soil left infertile.

    (3 marks)

    (Marks available: 12)

  2. a) Explain why deforestation can reduce soil fertility.

    (3 marks)

    b) How can deforestation affect people who live in these areas?

    (4 marks)

    c) Describe how tropical rainforests can be managed.

    (3 marks)

    (Marks available: 10)

    Answer

    Answer outline and marking scheme for question: 2

    a) Give yourself marks if you mentioned the following points:

    • Humus is not replaced.
    • Nutrients are washed away downwards.
    • Leaves do not fall to create humus.
    • The vegetation creates most of the nutrients.

    (3 marks)

    b) Give yourself 1 - 2 marks if you mentioned the following points:

    • Increased flooding/homes lost/moved to urban areas.
    • Created jobs.

    Give yourself 3 - 4 marks if you can expand any of the above points. You may also use case studies.

    • Increased surface runoff due to deforestation can cause increased flooding, which can lead to the destruction of infrastructure.
    • Homes of native groups of people living in the forests can be lost.
    • As the soil becomes less fertile farmers in North and Central Brazil have moved to shanty towns, like Roçhina, in urban areas.
    • The Carajas mining project has created 2000 jobs.

    (4 marks)

    c) Give yourself marks if you mentioned the following points:

    • Sustainable development.
    • Replacing the same amount of trees as you remove.
    • Create more National Parks where deforestation cannot occur.
    • Reduce the mass burning of trees.
    • You may also gain marks for using relevant case studies.

    (3 marks)

    (Marks available: 10)