S-Cool Revision Summary

S-Cool Revision Summary

Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds.

Many organic compounds are to be found in crude oil.

Crude oil is a mixture of useful compounds. Fractional distillation separates crude oil into fractions.

The compounds within the different fractions differ by their carbon content, ease of burning, smell, colour, and melting/boiling point. The lighter fractions are smaller molecules and have lower boiling points. Petrol is one such fraction. The heavier fractions are long chained hydrocarbons with high boiling points. The lighter fractions are used as fuels and are hence in greater demand than the heavier fractions such as bitumen, which is used on roads.

Cracking is the process by which long chained compounds are broken down into smaller chained compounds.

Reforming is the process that changes chained molecules into branched.

The fractions are made up of hydrocarbons. Compounds that contain hydrogen and carbon only.

Alkanes are a family of hydrocarbons with the general formulaCopyright S-cool. They are described as saturated compounds.

Alkenes are another family of hydrocarbons with the general formula. They are described as being unsaturated due the presence of a double bond.

Both alkanes and alkenes carry out combustion in oxygen producing carbon dioxide and water.

Alkenes are more reactive than alkanes due to addition reactions occurring to their double bond. The alkanes are saturated so addition does not occur.

Polymerisation is a reaction whereby alkenes bond to one another forming long chains. The products of polymerisation are called polymers or plastics.

Alkenes readily carry out polymerisation as they can add to their double bonds.