Exam-style Questions: Management, Leadership, Motivation and Communication

1. a) What are the advantages and disadvantages of performance related pay?

b) Other than through performance related pay systems how can managers motivate their sales force?

(Marks available: 10)

Answer

Answer outline and marking scheme for question: 1

Give yourself marks for mentioning any of the points below:

a) PRP advantages: creates incentive. If targets are clearly set, then sales person has clear objectives. Targets can be set for each individual sales person.

Disadvantages: Unrealistic targets without looking at the market place. Other motivating factors may be missed out.

(5 marks)

b) Group incentives, holidays, fringe benefits, job satisfaction and working as a team.

(5 marks)

(Marks available: 10)

2. a) What qualities should a good leader possess?

b) Explain, using examples, why leaders vary their leadership style in different circumstances

(Marks available: 10)

Answer

Answer outline and marking scheme for question: 2

Give yourself marks for mentioning any of the points below:

a) The qualities of a good leader include having a clear vision and direction, being able to communicate, and being able to motivate people towards achieving organisational objectives.

(5 marks)

b) To suit their style and situation. For example, directive: suitable for instructing workers for structured tasks.

Paternalistic: suitable for dealing with new, inexperienced or young workers.

Constitutional: suitable for resolving conflict or areas of uncertainty.

Participative: suitable for qualified, specialist and experienced workers.

(5 marks)

(Marks available: 10)

3. a) Describe two ways in which employees can be empowered.

b) Give two advantages of empowerment from the point of view of:

(i) The organisation

(ii) The employee.

(Marks available: 10)

Answer

Answer outline and marking scheme for question: 3

Give yourself marks for mentioning any of the points below:

a) Refers to devolving responsibility down to the lowest levels within an organisation.

The power to make decisions is given to those who previously acted on orders from more senior staff.

(5 marks)

b) (i) Saves management time, lower staff costs, employees are aware of business needs, able to respond quickly to market changes.

(ii) More interesting work, more responsibility, autonomy over work, sign of employers trust.

(5 marks)

(Marks available: 10)

4. a) How may the roles of a manager and a leader differ in business?

b) Explain briefly in what situations a manager might adopt different management styles.

(Marks available: 10)

Answer

Answer outline and marking scheme for question: 4

Give yourself marks for mentioning any of the points below:

a) A leader normally sets objectives.

A manager organises resources to achieve the objectives.

(5 marks)

b) Depends on situation, time, and the decision to be made.

For example: a logistics manager of a transport company will tend to direct his drivers. He may adopt a different style when managing office staff.

(5 marks)

(Marks available: 10)

5. a) What are the advantages to an organisation of encouraging teamwork?

b) How do reward packages, such as pensions and share option schemes, help motivate the work force?

(Marks available: 10)

Answer

Answer outline and marking scheme for question: 5

Give yourself marks for mentioning any of the points below:

a) Greater range of skills, knowledge to solve problems.

Increase in employee morale.

Problems across the organisation can be solved more easily.

Team ideas more creative than individual.

(5 marks)

b) Reference to motivational theory required. Pension may depend on the age of person. Share option depends on size offered, compare between chief executive and a shop floor worker.

(5 marks)

(Marks available: 10)