Exam-style Questions: Movement and Support in Animals

1. The diagram shows the appearance of a sarcomere from a relaxed muscle fibril, as seen with a light microscope.

a) Use your knowledge of the sliding filament hypothesis to explain the appearance of each of the bands P, Q and R.

b) Draw a similar diagram to show the appearance of the sarcomere when the fibril is contracted.

(Marks available: 4)

Answer

Answer outline and marking scheme for question: 1

Give yourself marks for mentioning any of the points below:

a) P - Actin.

Q - Actin + Myosin.

R - Myosin.

(3 marks)

b) Diagram with narrower P region and no/very thin R region.

(1 mark)

(Marks available: 4)

2. The drawing shows some of the main flight muscles of a locust.

a) What name is used to describe the action of a pair of muscles such as A and B?

b) Explain how the action of muscles A and B brings about movement of the wing.

(Marks available: 3)

Answer

Answer outline and marking scheme for question: 2

Give yourself marks for mentioning any of the points below:

a) Antagonistic.

(1 mark)

b) Muscle A contracts, pulls wing down.

Muscle B contracts, pulls wing up.

(2 marks)

(Marks available: 3)

3. Complete the table below (showing the differences between the three muscle types):

Muscle Type

Skeletal

Cardiac

Smooth

Function

 (a)

 (b)

 (c)

Cell

 (d)

 (e)

(f) 

Control of Contraction

 (g)

 (h)

(i)

Speed of contraction

 (j)

 (k)

(l)

(Marks available: 4)

Answer

Answer outline and marking scheme for question: 3

Muscle Type

Skeletal

Cardiac

Smooth

Function

Locomotion

Pumping blood through heart

Lines blood vessels

Cell

Striated

Specialised striated

Unstriated

Control of Contraction

Voluntary

Involuntary

Involuntary

Speed of contraction

Rapid

Intermediate

Slow

(Marks available: 4)