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  1. Install Flash

     

    The graph shows the number of tourists that visit some of the UK's tourist attractions.

    a) How many people visit Northumberland National Park each year?

    (1 Mark)

    b) Why is it important to create National Parks?

    (2 Marks)

    c) What is a honeypot site?

    (1 Mark)

    d) What are the impacts tourism in MEDC's.

    (4 Marks)

    c) Explain how the impacts of tourism can be reduced.

    (4 Marks)

    (Marks available: 12)

    Answer

     

    Answer outline and marking scheme for question: 1

    a) 1¼ - 1¾ million

    (1 mark)

    b) Give yourself marks if you mentioned the following points:

    • To protect areas of natural beauty.
    • To preserve natural resources.
    • To create natural areas for public enjoyment.
    • To stop major development in these areas.

     

    (2 marks)

    c) Give yourself a mark if you made any of the following points:

    • Areas visited by a disproportionate amount of visitors.
    • Most popular site in an area.
    • Sites that attract a large amount of people.

     

    (1 mark)

    d) Give yourself marks if you mentioned any of the following points:

    • Creates jobs/improves the economy of the area/increased number of second homes.
    • Increases in house prices/jobs are often seasonal/litter/trampling.
    • Soil erosion/footpath erosion/traffic congestion.

     

    You could gain marks by expanding any of these points, for example:

    • In Exmore, over 3000 people are employed in tourism.
    • Over 90% of visitors to Exmore arrive by car causing increased traffic congestion.

     

    (4 marks)

    e) Give yourself 1 - 2 marks if you mention the following points:

    • Specific car parks/litter bins/fines.
    • Picnic areas/park and ride schemes.
    • Building new footpaths/brochures/signposts.
    • Education centers.

     

    Give yourself 3 - 4 marks if you can expand the points above and use relevant case studies:

    • Large boulders are placed along the roads in Exmore to stop cars parking off the road.
    • Boulders are placed along the side of footpaths to encourage walkers to stay on the paths and waterlets are built to divert surface run off and stop gullying.
    • European funding has created a new "green brochure" to educate visitors.
    • Some well-known tourist sites are no longer advertised to try and reduce the pressure on these areas.

     

    (4 marks)

    (Marks available: 12)

  2. a) What are non-renewable resources?

    (1 Mark)

    b) Why is it important to find new sources of energy?

    (2 Marks)

    c) Name two renewable resources.

    (2 Marks)

    d) For a renewable resource that you have studied discuss the advantages and disadvantages of its use.

    (5 Marks)

    e) Describe one other way, apart from funding projects into alternative sources of energy, that countries can try to control their increasing consumption of resources.

    (2 Marks)

    (Marks available: 12)

    Answer

     

    Answer outline and marking scheme for question: 2

    a) Resources that will eventually run out or are finite.

    (1 mark)

    b) Give yourself marks if you mentioned the following points:

    • Resources rapidly running out.
    • Population increasing rapidly.
    • Large population put pressure on resources.

     

    (2 marks)

    c) Give yourself marks if you mentioned any of the following sources of energy:

    • Hydroelectric power/solar power/wave power.
    • Geothermal energy/wind power.

     

    (2 marks)

    d) Give yourself 1 - 2 marks if you mentioned the following points:

    • Hydroelectric power.
    • Cheap/little pollution/dams can be an eyesore/difficult to find suitable locations.

     

    Give yourself 3 - 5 marks if you expanded any of the above points and were able to give some facts or a case study:

    • After the initial cost of the Dam the energy is relatively cheap to run.
    • The reservoirs can provide other jobs in the form of tourist development.
    • The flooding required to build the dam may lead to relocation of residents and loss of valuable farmland. When Kielder Water was created 70 houses were lost.
    • The dam can also control flooding.
    • Building dams can cause environmental damage, half a million trees were felled and Salmon breeding grounds were lost When Kielder Water was built.

     

    (5 marks)

    e) You must only write about one method and you must expand that description:

    • Forestry: Introducing scheme to reforest areas by planting fast growing trees that only take 25 years to mature.
    • Recycling: By recycling glass, paper and clothes as well as natural products.
    • Protecting areas of natural beauty and vital resources that are then protected by law, for example, National parks; there are 10 National parks in the UK that cover 10% of the land and 10% of coasts. National Forest Parks.
    • Substitution of resources.
    • Small scale schemes, for example, public awareness campaigns to encourage the population to save energy, switch off lights, half fill kettles, etc.

     

    (2 marks)

    (Marks available: 12)

  3. Country: % of GNP from Tourism:
    Kenya 2.5-5
    Australia 1-2.5
    S.Africa 0.5-1
    Brazil Under 0.5
    Egypt 5-10

     

    The table shows the percentage of each country's GNP that comes from tourism.

    a) Which country is most dependant on tourism?

    (1 Mark)

    b) What type of holiday do LEDC's, like Egypt, offer to tourists?

    (2 Marks)

    c) What are the advantages and disadvantages of encouraging tourism in LEDC's?

    (6 marks)

    d) How can tourism be encouraged in LEDC's without destroying the environment?

    (3 marks)

    (Marks available: 12)

    Answer

     

    Answer outline and marking scheme for question: 3

    a) Egypt.

    (1 Mark)

    b) Give yourself marks if you mentioned any of the following points:

    • Beach/safari/sightseeing of ancient monuments.
    • Water sports, for example, scuba diving/outdoor pursuits such as skiing/climbing.
    • You could improve your answer by giving specific examples. For example, climbing Kilimanjaro.

     

    (2 marks)

    c) Give yourself 1 - 2 marks if you have mentioned the following points:

    • Money/jobs/new roads.
    • Jobs are poorly paid/poor working conditions.
    • Litter/pollution/soil erosion.

     

    Give yourself 3 - 4 marks if you can expand the above points, you must give a balanced argument:

    • Money made can go towards building new infrastructure.
    • New roads, airports and facilities can be built.
    • Income from tourism can help conserve the environment.
    • Money often goes to holiday companies in MEDC's, so little money actually gets through to the host country.
    • Local cultures can be devalued.
    • Environmental damage if planning is poor.

     

    Give yourself 5 - 6 marks if you can write in depth about the points include case studies use good geographical language and have a balanced argument:

    • Boats and divers have damaged coral reefs in the Indian Ocean near Malindi.
    • The Maasai, who are nomadic, can no longer farm some of their land, as it has become part of the National Parks.
    • Countries benefit from overseas investment primarily in tourism but later in other related industries.
    • Roads are built along tourist desire lines so rarely benefit the locals.

     

    (6 marks)

    d) Give yourself marks if you mentioned any of the following points:

    • Create National Parks and reserves.
    • Banning farming in these areas.
    • Strict planning control of tourist development.
    • Including local people in plans.
    • Making tourism appropriate not exploitative so it fits the need of the locals and the environment.
    • Encourage small groups of people in less sophisticated resorts.

     

    (3 marks)

    (Marks available: 12)

  4. Country: Energy Consumption (1989 gigajoules):
    USA 295
    Kenya 3
    UK 147
    Italy 111
    Egypt 22
    Peru 15

     

    The Table shows the energy consumption of several countries in 1989.

    a) Which country has the lowest energy consumption?

    (1 Mark)

    b) What is the relationship between development and energy consumption?

    (2 Marks)

    c) State the factors that affect the different rates of resource use that are found in countries.

    (4 Marks)

    d) How can countries control the amount of resources they are using?

    (5 Marks)

    (Marks available: 12)

    Answer

     

    Answer outline and marking scheme for question: 4

    a) Kenya

    (1 mark)

    b) The more developed countries have higher energy consumption.

    (2 marks)

    c) Give yourself marks if you mentioned the following points:

    • Countries where primary industries dominate.
    • Level of industrialization.
    • Level of technology.
    • Need to exploit resources.
    • Level of conservation and pollution controls.

     

    (4 marks)

    d) Give yourself 1 - 2 marks if you mention the following points:

    • Quotas/Conservation/Pollution controls.
    • Recycling/Protecting areas.
    • Using renewable resources (these could be listed).

     

    Give yourself 3 - 5 marks if you can expand the above points, you may be able to give examples of case studies:

    • Protecting areas of natural beauty and vital resources that are then protected by law, for example, National parks; there are 10 National parks in the UK that cover 10% of the land and 10% of coasts. National Forest Parks
    • In Brazil money has been put into hydroelectric power to help their industrial growth.
    • In parts of southern France solar power is used to power the streetlights along motorways.
    • Substitution of resources.
    • Small scale schemes, for example, public awareness campaigns to encourage the population to save energy, switch off lights, half fill kettles etc.

     

    (5 marks)

    (Marks available: 12)