a) What is the meaning of the term Population Density?
b) What is the meaning of the term population distribution?
c) What is the meaning of the term densely populated?
d) Using examples of places you have studied describe the physical factors that cause areas to be sparsely populated.
(Marks available: 10)Answer
Answer outline and marking scheme for question: 1
a) Give yourself marks for mentioning any of the points below:
- The number of people who live in an area.
- It is worked out by dividing the total area by its population.
- The figure is shown per square kilometre.
b) Population distribution is the pattern of where people live in an area.
c) Densely populated is where there are many people living in a certain area. Another word for it is crowded.
d) Give yourself 1 - 2 marks if you have mentioned the following basic statements (most likely to just be a list, with little expansion):
- Accessibility is poor.
- Climate is poor - too wet/dry/cold/hot.
- Too mountainous.
- Poor resources.
- Poor vegetation and soil.
Give yourself 3 - 4 marks for expanding on the above points, and maybe using case studies:
- Sparsely populated areas have poor accessibility; they are often in the interior of countries where it was hard for early settlers to travel.
- Places that have climatic extremes are sparsely populated. Polar regions or deserts are too hot or cold for people to be able to live comfortably.
- Areas with high mountains have hostile climates, poor accessibility and poor soils and tend to be sparsely populated.
Give yourself 5 - 6 marks if you have expanded on the above points and used detailed case studies. You should use good geographical language for these marks:
- Areas with extreme climates are very sparsely populated - high or low temperatures and lack of precipitation, or aridity are the main reasons. Antarctica and the Sahara Desert are two examples.
- Places with high altitudes and steep relief are inaccessible, have poor soils and vegetation meaning farming is difficult. This sort of environment can support few people. An example is the Andes Mountains in South America
(Marks available: 10)
a) What is the meaning of the term Birth Rate?
b) What is the meaning of the term Death Rate?
c) Why do LEDCs tend to have a high birth rate?
d) On a copy of the diagram below (the Demographic Transition Model) draw three lines to represent the Birth rate, Death rate and Total Population.
e) On your copy of the diagram shade the main area that shows the Natural Increase.
f) On your diagram, place Sri Lanka and Japan in the correct positions.
(Marks available: 13)Answer
Answer outline and marking scheme for question: 2
a) Birth Rate is the number of live babies born per 1000 people per year.
b) Death Rate is the number of people who die per 1000 people per year.
c) Give yourself marks for mentioning any of the following points:
- Parents need large families so that the children can work at an early age.
- Parents have many children so that there will be someone to look after them in their old age - as there is no pension provision or old people's homes.
- Some religions in LEDCs ban the use of contraception.
- Governments in LEDCs tend not to have good family planning advice provision.
- Children are often seen as a sign of wealth and prestige in some LEDC countries.
For d, e and f Give yourself marks if your diagram looks like the one below:
(Marks available: 12)
a) What is the meaning of the term Infant Mortality Rate?
b) What is the meaning of the term Life Expectancy?
c) What is the meaning of the term Economically Active?
d) Look at the diagram below. It is a sketch of a population pyramid. Does it show Sweden or India?
e) What does the shape of the pyramid tell you about the structure of the country?
(Marks available: 11)Answer
Answer outline and marking scheme for question: 3
a) The number of babies dying before the age of one, per 1000 live births.
b) The average number of years a person can be expected to live
c) The percentage or number of people between 16 and 65 years old - capable of earning a living.
d) It shows Sweden.
e) Give yourself marks for mentioning any of the following:
- Give yourself marks for mentioning any of the following:
- The wide top shows a large number of older people meaning a high number of elderly dependants.
- The relatively straight sides above the age of 16 means a low death rate.
- The narrow base means a low birth rate.
- The narrow base means a low number of young dependants.
- The shape below the age of 16 indicates a low infant mortality rate.
(Marks available: 11)
a) What are the problems created by a country having a large population growth rate?
b) What are the problems created by a country having a large population growth rate?
c) Using examples describe two ways food supply can be increased
d) What is counter-urbanisation?
e) Why is counter-urbanisation common in MEDCs?
(Marks available: 12)Answer
Answer outline and marking scheme for question: 4
a) Give yourself 1 - 2 marks for mentioning any of the following (it will most likely be a list of things with little expansion):
- Overcrowding: Especially in urban areas.
- Associated problems in urban areas: Congestion, pollution, unemployment.
- Lack of housing and other services in urban areas.
- Lack of provision of adequate food.
- Rural: Urban migration as the rural areas become over-crowded.
Give yourself 3 - 4 marks for expanding on any of the points and including case studies (you would also be expected to use good geographical language):
- Urban areas will become increasingly overcrowded (overpopulated). Shanty towns will continue to grow, and people living there will do so in very poor sanitary conditions - Favelas in Rio de Janeiro, Bustees in Calcutta.
- More people will need jobs and so there will be a rise in unemployment and pressure on the government to provide more jobs. Unemployment could lead to more people being forced to live in poverty or turn to a life of crime.
b) Give yourself marks for mentioning any of the following points:
- There will be less people of working age to support a large dependant population. Elderly people are an increasing and permanent financial strain on the shrinking number of economically active members of the population.
- There could be a lack of sufficient people to fill the available jobs in some areas.
- Health care resources will have to be increased to cope with the needs of the increasingly elderly population - this money will have to be found from somewhere - therefore maybe decreasing funds for other areas.
- It maybe that the population total may even begin to decline.
c) Give yourself marks for describing in detail two of the examples below:
- Irrigation of arid land: This has occurred in MEDCs (Colorado USA), and in LEDCs (India).
- Land reclamation: This is expensive and has occurred in MEDCs - an example is the Polder Scheme in the Netherlands - this created more farm land.
- Fertilizers: Can improve poor quality soil. An example is the Green Revolution in some LEDCs - this included better technology to allow more intensive farming.
- Pesticides: Can increase the crop yield.
- Genetically modified crops could also prove to be a way of increasing food supply.
d) Counter-urbanisation is the movement (migration) of people from urban areas to rural areas.
e) Give yourself marks if you have mentioned any of the following:
- People move out of the city to rural areas to get away from the pollution, crime and congestion.
- They move to get a better quality of life and yet often still work in the urban areas - commuting in every day.
- Houses tend to be cheaper in rural areas - and you can get larger houses and more land (gardens).
(Marks available: 12)