S-Cool Revision Summary
This Revision Summary applies to all the Deviance topics...
Give a basic definition of deviance and provide evidence of both positive and negative forms of deviance.
Explain the basic insights into the nature of deviance provided by Durkheim.
Explain how Merton accounted for deviant behaviour.
Explain how sociological accounts of deviance differ from those of other disciplines.
Explain the biological analogy.
Explain Social disorganisation.
Understand ecological theory as a precursor of sub-cultural theory.
Explain the concepts Cultural Transmission and Differential Association.
Explain the research of Albert Cohen, Cloward and Ohlin and Miller.
Explain Marxist Sub-Cultural Theory.
Explain Matza's concepts of subterranean values and drift.
Explain how Labelling Theory differs from the traditional accounts of deviance.
Illustrate/give examples of the main concepts used by labelling theorists.
Explain why suicide is such an important topic in Sociology.
Outline the main features of Durkheim's theory of suicide and the principle supporting and critical studies.
Outline the main findings of the interpretive and 'micro-social' studies of suicide focussing on aspects of the suicidal act.
Explain what corporate crime is.
Explain what white collar crime is.
Give examples of corporate crime.
|Deviance||Behaviour that does not follow the norms or expectations of a particular group.|
|Norms||A guide to action. Norms instruct us how to behave in specific situations.|
|Moral community||The concept of a community united morally.|
|Society of Saints||Durkheim's imaginary society in which nobody is conventionally deviant.|
|Sanction||Rewards or punishments (consequences) used to encourage or discourage different forms of behaviour.|
|Functional Rebel||Durkheim's term for a person considered deviant in their own time, but later considered to have advanced our behaviour and understanding by their actions, for example, Socrates.|
|Skewed Deviant||Durkheim's term for a deviant produced by an unfair and unequal society.|
|Anomie||A state of normlessness (not knowing what the norms are).|
|Biological analogy||Influenced by the Evolutionary Theory - the idea of a struggle for space and the best habitat.|
|Moral regions||The idea that behaviours are, or are not tolerated in different parts of a city.|
|Zone of Transition||A once prosperous central area of cities, now fallen into decay, multiple occupation and high rates of crime.|
|Social disorganisation||A decrease in the influence of the existing social rules of behaviour upon individual members of the group.|
|Cultural transmission||The transmission of norms from one generation to the next.|
|Differential association||Deviance results from 'an excess of definitions favourable to violation of law over definitions unfavourable to violations of law.'|
|Status frustration||The denial of legitimate opportunities to obtain status.|
|Illegitimate opportunity structure||The opportunities a person had to commit deviant acts.|
|Hegemony||The imposition of ruling class ideas on the rest of society.|
|Subterranean values||Desires usually controlled by socialisation and fear of retribution.|
|Stigma||A spoiled identity.|
|Fantasy crime wave||The generation of a false impression as to the extent of a criminal activity.|
|Moral panic||The emergence of a perceived threat to social order from what is seen as undesirable behaviour.|
|Folk devil||A person who is seen to represent, in their person, a societal threat.|
|Moral entrepreneur||One who is prepared to defend or attack any particular moral position in which they have an interest.|
|Durkheim||Analysis of the nature and positive functions of deviance.|
|Merton||A typology of responses to cultural goals and institutional means.|
|Robert Park||Urban studies carried out at University of Chicago 1914-1940.|
|Ernest Burgess||The idea that cities could be divided into zones that had distinct characteristics.|
|Sutherland||Concept of differential association.|
|Clifford Shaw||'The Jackroller'. An example of cultural transmission.|
|Albert Cohen||'Delinquent Boys'. The Culture of the Gang.|
|Cloward and Ohlin||Illegitimate opportunity Structure.|
|Miller||Lower Class Culture as a Generating Milieu of Gang Delinquency.|
|Taylor, Walton and Young||The New Criminology.|
|David Matza||Delinquency as ordinary behaviour.|
|Aggleton||'Rebels Without a Cause?' (1987). A study of Middle Class deviant behaviour.|
|S.Cohen||Creator of 'moral panic' author of Folk Devils and Moral Panics.|
|Becker||'Outsiders'. Most prominent of the labeling theorists.|
|Pearce (1976)||'Crimes of the Powerful'.|
|Chambliss (1978)||'On the take: From petty crooks to Presidents'.|
|Box||'Recession Crime and Punishment' (1987).|